Flashcards in Exam 2 respiratory Deck (37):
What is the association between nasal decongestants and epinephrine?
Decongestants are sympathomimetics and may enhance cardiac stimulation (tachycardia) and elevate BP
MOA for beta adrenergic agonists
targets beta 2 receptors in airway - bronchodilation
3 short acting beta adrenergic agonists
2 long acting beta adrenergic agonists
2. salmeterol with fluticasone (Advair) - contains a steroid
2 diseases Advair treats
2. COPD associated with chronic bronchitis
Name of the "reserve" drug used for patients who new better asthma medications are ineffective
methylxanthines - treats chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD
MOA for methylxanthines
blocks phophodiesterase which increases cAMP
main preparation of methylxanthines
4 side effects of theophylline
5. GI effects
Why is theophylline considered a red flag drug in dentistry?
Causes CNS stimulation (nausea/vomiting), adverse cardiac effects, and increasing risk for seizures when mixed with certain antibiotics and or system antifungals
Specifically what antibiotics and antifugal cause a reaction when mixed with theophylline?
Antifungal = ketoconazole
Why are glucocorticoid medications used to manage asthma?
Reduce inflammation and decrease frequency and severity of asthma attacks
MOA for glucocorticoids treating asthma
reduce cytokine production and inhibit accumulation of basophils/eosinophils/leukocytes
What is the name of the 1st OTC intranasal steroid?
3 main dental considerations associated with inhalers
1. taste alterations
3. overuse can lead to hyper-reflexive airway
4 main dental considerations associated with steroids
2. susceptibility to infection
3. delayed wound healing
4. adrenal suppression
What chemical mediators produce a similar effect to histamine?
Name 3 medications primarily used for seasonal allergies and are associated with leukotrienes
1. Accolate - blocks leukotriene receptors
2. Singulair - blocks leukotriene receptors
3. Zyflo - Inhibits leukotriene synthesis
MOA for anti-tussive medications
depresses cough center in medulla, chemical relative of morphine - lacks narcotic properties except in overdose
generic name for anti-tussive medications
generic name for expectorants?
MOA for expectorants?
irritation of stomach while stimulating respiratory fluid (lubricates) decrease mucus viscosity
What drug may contribute to pulmonary disease is given too much?
Oxygen - may induce apnea/acute respiratory failure
What disease: recurrent bronchial SM spasm, inflammation, swelling of bronchial mucosa, hypersecretion of mucous?
Asthma - widespread narrowing of airways, decreased ventilation with increased airway resistance, and decreased expiratory outflow
What is the most common type of asthma and what causes it?
Extrinsic - inhaled seasonal allergens, seen in children and young adults, IgE mediated
Intrinsic asthma makes up 30% of cases, what is it associated with?
Endogenous causes like emotional stress or GERD, normal IgE levels
Besides extrinsic and intrinsic, what are 4 other types of asthma?
1. drug induced
2. food allergens
3. exercise induced
4. infectious asthma
5 common drugs that may induce asthma
4, beta blockers
5. ACE inhibitors
What 3 things make up the aspirin hypersensitivity triad?
1. aspirin hypersensitivity
3. nasal polyps
MOA for aspirin allergy
inhibits bronchodilating PGE2 and the formation of leukotrienes
Name for persistent life threatening bronchospasm despite drug therapy/intervention?
Status Asthmaticus - attack lasts for more than 24 hours
In Status Asthmaticus, dyspnea, cyanosis, fall in systolic pressure with inspiration all occur, what are 4 end points?
2. severe dehydration
3. peripheral vascular collapse
4. death without intervention
6 symptoms of asthma
1. shortness of breath
3. expanded chest
5. failure to grow
6. thick stringy mucous
If you get asthma attacks about twice a week, what classification would that be?
Moderate (mild = only when exposed to trigger, and severe = frequent or ongoing)
medication for mild persistent asthma
anti-inflammatory drug with low dose inhaled corticosteroid
What level of asthma would get one medium dose of inhaled corticosteroid or 2 daily medications
Moderate persistent asthma