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Flashcards in Exam 2 - more endocrine Deck (37):
1

2 drugs to treat hyperthroidism

1. sodium levothyroxine (T4, Synthroid/Levoxyl)
2. sodium liothyronine (T3, Cytomel)

2

MOA for sodium levothyroxine

alters DNA transcription/protein synthesis
promotes GNG
promotes glycogen stores
Increases BMR

3

3 drugs for hypothroidism

1. propylthiouracil PTU
2. Iodides
3. methimazole (Tapazole)

4

2 oral side effects of Tapazole

1. taste alteration
2. salivary gland swelling

5

3 side effects of PTU

1. skin rash
2. nausea
3. agranulocytosis

6

MOA for PTU

Blocks iodination (synthesis of T3/T4) reaction in thyroid gland

7

MOA for Tapazole

Blocks iodines ability to combine with Tyrosine to form T3/T4

8

5 side effects of Tapazole

1. hematologic disorders
2. fever
3. rash
4. vasculitis
5. arthralgia

9

What diabetes medication helps to improve glycemic control in type 1 and type 2?

Long acting Lantus Solostar

10

Side effect of Lantus Solostar

mouth numbness

11

5 classes of type 2 diabetes medications

1. sulfonylureas
2. biguanides
3. alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
4. thiazolidinesdiones (TZDs)
5. Incretins

12

example of a biguanides

metformin

13

5 effects of metformin

1. inhibits absorption of glucose from gut
2. decreases hepatic glucose production
3. increase insulin activity
4. increase peripheral glucose uptake and utilization
5. reduces LDL cholesterol and triglycerides

14

2 side effects of metformin

1. lactic acidosis
2. GI effects

15

4 drugs from the 1st generation of sulfonylureas?

1. tolbutamide
2. tolazamide
3. acetohyxamide
4. chlorpropramide

16

2 drugs from the 2nd more potent generation of sulfonylureas

1. glipizide
2. glyburide

17

3 effects of sulfonylureas

1. promote insulin release from beta cells
2. increase insulin release in pancreas in presence of glucose
3. enhance effect of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells

18

Major drug interaction associated with sulfonylureas

Aspirin - may enhance hypoglycemic response

19

2 drugs from the alpha glucosidase inhibitor class

1. acarbose
2. miglitol

20

MOA for alpha glucosidase inhibitors

Inhibits enzyme that degrades carbs so no monsaccharides are absorbed

21

2 drugs in the TZD class

1. pioglitazone
2. rosiglitazone

22

TZDs: ____ blood glucose by improving target cell response to insulin _____ increasing pancreatic insulin secretion. "____" insulin receptors = reduces insulin resistance. Activity depends on presence of ____ ____. Decrease ___ glucose output. Increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in ___ ____. Decreases _____ in adipocytes.

Lower
WITHOUT
Reset
insulin activity
hepatic
skeletal muscle
lipolysis

23

How do incretins work?

Mimic hormones produced by the body to stimulate the release of insulin

24

3 types of estrogen replacement drugs (HRT)

1. conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin)
2. estrified estrogens
3. Estradiol preps

25

Long term findings of HRT drugs?

decrease in cholesterol but increase in blood clots and no reduction of heart disease and may increase risk of stroke.
(Increase risk of breast cancer and women with an intact uterus -> risk for endometrial cancer(

26

Combination HRT drug

Prempro (adding progesterone reduces risk for endometrial cancer)

27

2 progesterone replacement drugs

1. norethindrone (OC)
2. Provera

28

What is Provera used for?

tx of abnormal uterine bleeding, secondary amenorrhea, endometrial cancer

29

EVISTA: activates ____ receptors in bone FDA approved for prevention of _____ in postmenopausal women. Does not activate estrogen receptors in the ____, thus helps prevent cancer. Only medicine proven to reduce both risk of ___ fractures and risk of ___ ___ in postmenopausal women. _____ action on bone. Absence of ____ bleeding and _____ and ____ stimulation.

estrogen
osteoporosis
breast
spinal
breast cancer
anti-resorptive
vaginal
endometrial
breast

30

2 side effects of Evista

hot flashes and leg cramps

31

3 oral bisphosphonates (poor bioavailability)

1. Fosamax
2. Actonel
3. Boniva

32

4 IV bisphosphonates

1. Didronel
2. Aredia
3. Zometa
4. Skelid

33

1 IV prevention bisphosphonate

Reclast

34

3 side effects of bisphosphonates

1. erosive esophagitis
2. headache
3. GI distress

35

Bisphosphonates: approved to treat _____ in postmenopausal women, increase bone ____ density, inhibits ____ activity, and inhibits formation, growth, and dissolution of bone ____ ____/

osteoporosis
mineral
osteoclastic
hydroxyapatite crystals

36

_____ increase plasma Ca and maintains levels

PTH

37

Hormone form of Vit D

calcitriol - produced by kidneys in response to PTH