Exam #2 Fluids and Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2 Fluids and Electrolytes Deck (107)
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What are some differences between adults and children?

-Their fluid requirements

- Ability to manage fluids

- the smaller and younger we are, the more water and saline is in our body.

- Longer GI tract in relation to body size.

- Immature kidneys

- Higher metabolic rate due to increased respirations and HR

Immature immune system, results in more fevers and increases metabolic rate more


TNA is one of the most routine surgeries for children

Under general anesthesia

takes about 15 - 20 min

outpatient surgery

Normal for blood tinged vomit, as long as not bright red and excessive.

have to pee and drink before you go home


Adults and Adolescents are made up of _____% normal saline.



Infants are made up of ____% normal saline.



Little premies in the NICU are made up of _____% normal saline.



The other important thing to remember is where the water is located.

Our fluid is located in the extracellular space and our intracellular space.


Extracellular fluid is

blood within the vessels


Synovial fluid ect….

any water that is outside of the cells

It is EASY to lose


Intracellular Fluid is

water that is inside of the cell.

It is protected by the cellular membrane.

It is harder to lose and tends to stay where it is supposed to stay.


ECF electrolyte

sodium – 135 – 145 mEq/L
and chloride


ICF electrolytes

potassium and magnesium –
K+ -- 3.5 – 5.0 mEq/L
Mag – 1.5 – 2.2 mEq/L


How much of an infants body weight is ECF?

ECF 40%

By the time they reach adolescent age, they will have only 20% of their body weight as extracellular.

This is why infants lose fluid volume quicker because the majority of their fluid volume is ECF.

ECF is easier lost because it is NOT protected by the cell membrane.


How much of an infants body weight is ICF?

ICF 35%


It is important to remember which electrolytes compose the water because dehydration is directly related to where our sodium and chloride is.


Extracellular fluid has the sodium

Most of Intracellular fluid is mainly potassium

This does not mean that it does not pass the cell membrane.


What makes kids so special?

they are composed of more water

the smaller they are, the more water they are made up of

they have different vital signs, smaller they are the faster they breathe.

babies have immature kidneys


What are the 2 ways that we lose water?

sensibile water loss

Insensible water loss


What is sensible water loss?

peeing and pooping.

Things that can be measured


What is insensible water loss?

It is what we lose through skin and respirations.


How much insensible water loss occurs through the skin?



How much insensible water loss occurs through respirations?



So for insensible water loss in a child that breathes faster than an adult…..they are going to lose more water.

also, there is more body surface area in smaller babies available compared to the amount of our weight the smaller the baby is.

This makes a huge difference in preterm babies.

They have a lot of skin compared to their core muscle and fat.

Where as if you get a big guy, they have less skin compared to their core muscle and fat.


We get more insensible water loss the smaller the baby is



The thing about babies and infants is they have premature kidneys.

This means that they are not as great at concentrating their urine as much as it needs to be concentrated.

They also pee more than bigger guys


Because of their fast heart rate and because they are growing so fast they have a higher metabolic rate.

This causes them to lose more water than adults.


Then we have GI tract, so in relationship to their body size, they have a longer GI tract, and it is faster.

so they tend to poop more than adults. Especially when they are infants.


The other thing to remember, especially with infants and the younger population, is that they have an immature immune system.

So they get sick more often,

they have fevers more

which increases metabolic rate and causes more fluid loss.


Things that cause water loss in an children and infants:

Could be multiple….

Higher skin surface area

More ECF

Longer GI Tract

Immature Kidneys

Immature Immune system (FEVERS)

Higher metabolic rate from increased RR and HR


So to maintain this hydration, this equality of intake and output, our body has a wonderful system that it produces.

When we get thirsty, it means that we have had a little bit of fall in our blood volume.

Which is a rise in blood osmolarity.


When there is a rise in our blood osmolarity…what happens next?

It stimulates the pituitary to produce ADH.


What does ADH do?

It makes us stop peeing and holds onto water.


If you have a rise in your blood osmolarity, and you get thirsty…

If you do not drink and become more dehydrated it will cause what?

A decrease in blood flow to the kidneys.