Peds Final Review - Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Peds Final Review - Growth and Development Deck (111)
1

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Sits unsupported at _____ months

8

2

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Crawls at ____ months

10

3

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Fine pincer grasp appears at ___-___ months

10 to 12

4

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Waves bye-bye at ___ months

10

5

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Walks with assistance at __-__ months

10 - 12

6

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Says a few word in addition to “mama” or “ dada” at ____ months

12

7

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Explores environment by ___ and ____ means

motor and oral

8

Infant ( Birth to 1 year) is what Erikson Stage?

Trust vs. Mistrust

9

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Birth weight doubles by ___ months, triples by ___ months

6, 12

10

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Birth length increases by __% at __ months

50% , 12

11

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Posterior fontanel closes by _____ weeks

8

12

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Social smile occurs at ___ months

2

13

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Head turns to locate sounds at ____ months

3

14

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Moro reflex disappears around ____ months

4

15

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Steady head control is achieved at ___ months

4

16

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Rolls from abdomen to back and back to abdomen at ___-___ months

5-6

17

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Plays peek-a-boo after ___ months

6

18

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Transfers objects from hand to hand at ____ months

7

19

Infant ( Birth to 1 year)

Develops stranger anxiety at ___-___ months

7-9

20

Nursing implications:

During hospitalization the infant’s emerging skills may ____ or _____.

disappear or regress

21

Nursing implications:

If the parents are not able to be with the infant, the baby may be inconsolable due to ______ _______.

separation anxiety

The nurse should plan to have the parents be part of the infant’s care and should encourage them to do so

22

Nursing implications:

Respect the infant’s schedule at home by assessing and implementing as many components as possible

Preparation and teaching should be directed to the family.

However, the nurse should always speak to the infant and console the infant, especially while performing painful or stressful procedures.

23

Nursing implications:

Toys for hospitalized infants include:

mobiles, rattles, squeaking toys, picture books, balls, colored blocks, and activity boxes.

24

What behavior would indicate that thyroid hormone therapy for a 4 month old is effective?

You must know which milestones are accomplished by a 4 month old.

He Has steady head control, which is an expected milestone for a 4 month old and indicates that replacement therapy is adequate for growth.

25

What behavior would indicate that thyroid hormone therapy for a 4 month old is effective?

You must know which milestones are accomplished by a 4 month old.

He Has steady head control, which is an expected milestone for a 4 month old and indicates that replacement therapy is adequate for growth.

26

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Birth wt quadruples by ___ months

30

27

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Achieves 50% of adult height by _____years

2

28

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Growth velocity ____.

Slows

29

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Appears to be ___ and _____.

bowlegged and potbellied

30

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

All _____ teeth (20) are present

Primary

31

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Anterior fontanel closes by ______ months

18

32

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Kicks a ball at ___ months

24

33

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Feeds self with spoon and cup at _____ years

2

34

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Daytime toilet training can usually be started around ___ years

2

35

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Two – to three word sentences are spoken by ____ years

2

36

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Three to four word sentences are spoken by ____ years

3

37

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Own first and last name can be stated by___ to ___ years.

2 ½ to 3

38

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years)

Temper tantrums are common

39

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Erikson stage is ______.

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

40

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Give simple, brief explanations before procedures,

Give simple, brief explanations before procedures, keeping in mind that a 1 year old does not benefit from the same explanation as that given to a 3 year old

41

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

During hospitalization,

enforced separation from parents is the greatest threat to the toddler’s psychological and emotional integrity

42

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Security objects or favorite toys from home should be provided for a toddler

43

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Teach parents to explain their plans to the child (such as: “I will be back after your nap”)

44

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Respect the child’s routine and implement when possible

45

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Expect regression

46

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Toys for the hospitalized toddler include:

board and mallet, push-pull toys, toy telephones, stuffed animals and storybooks with pictures, depending on the reason for hospitalization.

Toddlers benefit from being taken to the hospital playroom when able, because mobility is very important to their development.

47

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Toddlers are learning to name body parts and are concerned about their bodies

48

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Very basic explanations should be given to toddlers about procedures

49

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Autonomy should be supported by providing guided choices when appropriate

50

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Autonomy should be supported by providing guided choices when appropriate

51

Toddler ( 1 – 3 years) Nursing implications:

Autonomy should be supported by providing guided choices when appropriate

52

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Each year a child gains about ___ pounds and grows ___ to ___ inches

5 , 2 ½ to 3

53

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child stands erect with more slender posture

54

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child learns to

run, jump, skip, and hop

55

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A ___ year old can ride a tricycle

3

56

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Handedness is established

57

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child uses scissors at ____ years

4

58

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child ties shoelaces at ___ years

5

59

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child learns colors, shapes

60

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Visual acuity approaches 20/20

61

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Thinking is

ego centric and concrete

62

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child uses sentences of ___ to _____ words

5 to 8

63

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

A child learns sexual identity, curiosity and masturbation are common

64

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Imaginary playmates and fears are common

65

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr)

Aggressiveness at 4 years is replaced by more independence at 5 years

66

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Eriksons stage is:

Initiative vs. guilt

67

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

Nursing care for hospitalized preschoolers should emphasize understanding of the child’s egocentricity.

Explain that he or she did not cause the illness and that painful procedures are not a punishment for misdeeds.

68

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

The child’s questions should be answered at the child’s

Use simple words that will be understood by the child

69

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

Therapeutic play or medical play that allows the child to act out his or her experiences is helpful

70

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

Fear of mutilation by procedures is common.

A Band aid may be helpful in restoring body integrity.

71

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

Toys and play for the hospitalized preschooler include:

coloring books, puzzles, cutting and pasting, dolls, building blocks, clay, and toys that allow the preschooler to work out hospitalization experiences, depending on the reason for hospitalization.

72

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

The preschooler needs preparation for procedures.

He or she should understand what is and what is not going to be “fixed.”

Simple explanations and basic pictures are helpful.

Let the child handle equipment or models of the equipment.

73

Preschool child ( 3 – 6 yr) Nursing implications:

The preschooler needs preparation for procedures.

He or she should understand what is and what is not going to be “fixed.”

Simple explanations and basic pictures are helpful.

Let the child handle equipment or models of the equipment.

74

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Each year, a child gains __-__ pounds and about ___ inches in height

4-6 , 2

75

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Girls may experience menarche

76

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Loss of primary teeth and eruption of most permanent teeth occurs

77

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Fine and gross motor skills mature

78

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

A child is able to write script at ___ years of age

8

79

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

A child can dress self completely

80

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Egocentric thinking is replaced by social awareness of others

81

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

A child learns to tell time and understands past, present, and future

82

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

A child learns cause and effect relationships

83

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Socialization with peers becomes important

84

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.)

Molars erupt around ____ years

6

85

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Erikson's Stage is:

Industry vs Inferiority

86

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

The hospitalized school aged child may need more support from parents than they wish to admit

87

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Maintaining contact with peers and school activities is important during hospitalization

88

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Explanation of all procedures is important.

They can learn from verbal explanation, pictures, and books and by handling equipment.

89

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Privacy and modesty are important and should be respected during hospitalization (eg., close curtains during procedures, allow privacy during baths)

90

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Participation in care and planning with staff fosters a sense of involvement and accomplishment

91

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Toys for the school-age child include:

board games, card games, and hobbies, such as stamp collecting puzzles, and video games.

92

School-age Child (6 – 12 yr.) Nursing Implications:

Toys for the school-age child include:

board games, card games, and hobbies, such as stamp collecting puzzles, and video games.

93

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr)

Girls’ growth spurts during adolescence begin about 2 years earlier than boys. About 10 years of age

94

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr)

Girls finish growth at around 15, and boys at around 17.

95

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr)

Secondary sex characteristics develop

96

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr)

Adult-like thinking begins around 15. They can problem-solve and use abstract thinking.

97

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr)

Family conflicts develop.

98

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Erikson:

Identity vs Role confusion

99

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

Hospitalization of adolescents disrupts school and peer activities; they need to maintain contact with both.

100

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

They should share a room with other adolescents

101

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

Illnesses, treatments, and procedures that alter the adolescent’s body image can be viewed by the adolescent as being devastating.

102

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

Teaching about procedures should include time without the parents being present. When parents are present; direct questions to the adolescent, not the parent.

103

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

The age of assent for making medical decisions in children and adolescents ranges from 7 to 14 years. Parental consent is also needed for treatment.

104

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

For prolonged hospitalizations, adolescents need to maintain identity (e.g., have their own clothing, posters, and visitors). A teen room or teen night is very helpful. Parents rooming in is discouraged.

105

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

Some assessment questions should be asked without parents’ presence.

106

Adolescent (12 – 19 yr) Nursing implications:

When teaching adolescents, the focus should be on the here and now – “How will this affect me today?”

107

Age groups’ concepts of bodily injury:

School-age children:

They fear loss of control of their bodies

108

Age groups’ concepts of bodily injury:

Infants:

after 6 months, their cognitive development allows them to remember pain

109

Age groups’ concepts of bodily injury:

Toddlers:

They fear intrusive procedures

110

Age groups’ concepts of bodily injury:

Preschoolers:

They fear body mutilation

111

Age groups’ concepts of bodily injury:

Adolescents:

Their major concern is change in body image