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7year old characteristics

->5-12 lbs weight gain a year
->muscle and reflexes better
->physical activities and playing
-mental / emotional development
->speech skills (speech problems can be seen)
->begin to problem solve
->active memories
->should be able to make judgement calls
->learning to control emotions
->becoming sexual (attractions)
->self concept development
-social development
->easier friends become
->hard for kids with no self concept
->need parental approval, reassurance, peer acceptance

1

Anorexia nervosa

Psychological disorder in which a person drastically reduces intake of food which results in weakness, loss of weight, metabolic issues, and death

2

Arthritis

Inflammation of joints

3

Behavior of older adults

Mental ability is declining

Emotional stability declines

Diseases and bones disorders

4

Bulimia

Psychological disorder in which a person alternately binges and then fasts, or refuses to eat

5

Care of Alzheimer's

Love and affection
Patience

6

Cataracts

Condition of the eye where the lens becomes cloudy and opaque

7

Cause of Alzheimer's

Heredity

Tangles in neurons and neuron transmitters

8

Causes of cognitive impairments

Prenatal issues

Heredity

Chromosomal issues

9

Causes of suicide in teens

Bullying
Low self esteem
Family issues
Deaths

10

Causes of temporary confusion / disorientation

Seizure disorders, low blood pressure, heredity, lack of sleep, brain tumors, Alzheimer's, dementia, thyroid problems, heart problems

11

Changes in CV system

Cannot have as heavy as workload as before

Reduction in red blood cell count

Veins and arteries become less pliable and elastic

12

Nonverbal communication characteristics

Gestures, facial expressions, body language, appearance

13

Verbal communication characterisitcs

Fluency, word choice, speed, clarity, tone

14

Communication barriers

Culture, ethnicity

Hearing loss, impaired vision, speech impairments

Severe disabilities, touch, eye contact

15

Communication feedback

Listening, correct answers, tones, open questions

16

Compensation

Substitution of one goal for another goal to achieve success

17

Confidential care

?

18

growth and development

Measurable physical changes in humans and changes in intellectual, mental, emotional, social

19

Abuse

Any care that results in harm

20

Alzheimer's

Can lead to irreversible memory loss, deterioration of intellectual functions, disorientation, speech and gait problems

21

Communication

exchange of information: the exchange of information between people

22

Emotional development

Refers to the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence

23

Designation of POA or health care surrogate

Document that permits an individual (principal) to appoint an another person (agent) to make any decisions about health care if the principle should become unable to make choices

24

Infancy characteristics


-birth to one year
-dramatic and rapid changes
-physical development
->weight
->developing muscles and coordination
->reflexes
->teeth change (ten - twelve teeth by year one)
->color blind when born
metal development
->first thought of emotion is of emotion
->6-8 months start responding
->12 months can understand words
-emotional development
->6 months can show delight, anger, fear, (anything within the first year of life can effect rest of life)
-social development
->completely dependent on others for all needs

25

Early childhood characteristics

-1-6 years
-physical development
->average weight of six year old = 45 lbs
->muscles and reflexes
->some coordination improvement
->potty trained
-mental development
->verbal contact and words
->2500 words by age six
->2 year olds - short attention span, begin to understand concepts, memory,
->4 year olds- ask questions
->6 year olds - desire to read and write
-emotional development
->limits are set, most children are self-confident
->like routines
->begin to know what's right and wrong
->lack of self-control
->independence
-social development
->still don't play well with others
->sharing is a problem
->need: organization, consistency, routines

26

Late childhood

-6-12 year olds
-physical development
->5-12 lbs weight gain a year
->muscle and reflexes better
->physical activities and playing
-mental / emotional development
->speech skills (speech problems can be seen)
->begin to problem solve
->active memories
->should be able to make judgement calls
->learning to control emotions
->becoming sexual (attractions)
->self concept development
-social development
->easier friends become
->hard for kids with no self concept
->need parental approval, reassurance, peer acceptance

27

Adolescence

-ages 12-20
-physical development
->growing, muscle development
->makeup and appearance
->hormonal changes
-emotional development
->judgment calls
->responsibilities and maturity
->spontaneous choices
->peer pressure and thoughts
-social development
->friends are more important in most minds - seek approval from friends and not family
->need reassurance, support, understanding

28

Early adulthood

-ages 19-40
-physical development
->girls are almost permanently developed
->prime child bearing years
-mental development
->look forward to moving out from parents' consent
->looking forward to making own decisions
->steady relationships
->raising a family
->majority want financial freedom
->intellectual growth

29

Middle adulthood

-ages 40-65
-physical development
->grey hair, wrinkles, glasses
->weight gain, flabby skin
->menopause / non child bearing
->men can father child into 90's
-mental development
->intellect still growing
->confident in decision making
->acquire problem solving skills
-emotional development
->mid life crises
->financial issues
-social development
->relationships are solid
->retirement
->focus switches from work to families

30

Late adulthood

-ages +65
-most PR
-65% of all health care costs are from elderly
-mental development
->vary from one another
->biggest issues are losing family, home, ability to be independent

31

Diagnosis of Alzheimer's

.

32

Disease

medical condition: a condition in humans, plants, or animals that results in pathological symptoms and is not the direct result of physical injury

33

Displacement

Transferring feelings about one person to someone else

34

DNR

Do not resuscitate

35

Domestic violence

attempting or threatening to harm, or harming physically, to anyone in a household
->divorced couples
->related by blood, marriage, or adoption
->currently or formerly living together
->now or used to have a dating or engagement relationship
->have a child in common

36

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing

Less saliva leads to slower gag reflex

37

Dysuria

Painful urination

Most often caused by infections

38

Factors influencing communication good/bad

Perceptions, clarifying, attentive listening, changing subjects, open ended questions, close ended questions....

39

Five stages of death

Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

40

Forms of dementia

Vascular, mixed, dementia and Lewy Bodies, frontotemporal, Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH), Creutzfeldt-Jacob Dementia (CJD)

41

Glaucoma

The intraocular pressure of the eye increases and interferes with vision

42

Grasp reflex

Infants can grasp objects placed in hands

43

Hoarding

Pathological or compulsive keeping of objects

44

Hospice function / purpose

Care that provides comfort and support

Allows patient to die in dignity

45

Incontinence

The inability to control urine

46

Independence vs dependence

Being able to be safe and make choice on your own vs not being able to

47

Infant physical development

->weight
->developing muscles and coordination
->reflexes
->teeth change (ten - twelve teeth by year one)
->color blind when born

48

Levels of communication

Verbal, nonverbal, intrapersonal, interpersonal, public, mass

49

Living will

Document that allows individual to state what measures should or shouldn't be taken to prolong life

50

Loneliness in elderly

can be especially debilitating to older adults and may predict serious health problems and even death

Death of spouse, knowledge of future death

51

Loss of adipose tissue in elderly

-production of new skin cells decrease
-sebaceous (oil) and sudoriferous (sweat) glands become less active
-avoid lots of soaps
-avoid smelling lotion (will cause issues)
-circulation of skin decreases
-ability to get rid of heat decreases
-causes discoloration
-feel cold
-takes longer times to heal
-bruise easy
-hair loses color and hair loss (alpocia)
-methods to adapt and cope with changes
-turgor (lack of adepost tissues, lack of skin elasticity)
-ecchymosis - bruising (lack of adepost tissue)

52

Melanin patches

Natural skin pigmentation spot

53

Memory changes of elderly

.

54

Moro reflex

Involuntary reflex to stimulation of newborns

55

Needs for safety and security

Feel secure in environments

Free from fear and anxiety

56

Needs of humans

Physiological, safety, love and affection, esteem, self actualization

57

Nonverbal behavior

Gestures, mannerisms, expressions, body language

58

Ombudsman

Specially trained person who acts s an advocate for others to improve care conditions

59

Osteoporosis

Bones become porous and brittle because of lack of calcium and phosphorous

60

Osteomyelitis

Bone inflammation produced by a pathogenic organism

Organisms cause formation of abscesses within the bone and an accumulation of pus in the medullary canal

61

Pacing

When nervous or anxious

62

Patient advocate

Makes decisions for the patient

63

Patients' rights

Made clear in the Patient's Bill of Rights

64

Percent of people in long term care

5%

65

Projection

Placing the blame for ones own actions on others

66

Pillaging

Stealing of possesions

67

Psychological care of dying

->> give them control - get permission for everything (by whom, when, why, allow patient to talk how they want)
->> acknowledge difficult requests
->> fears are dying alone and dying with pain
->> hospice preaches for quality over quantity
->> maximize time with them
->> let them die how they want to die
->> family care
-->> have their understanding
-->> open communication
-->> learn to identify individuality
-->> death of the patient stops care for the patient, not the care for the family
-> deaths occur in threes
-->> closure for the health care workers

68

Psychological barriers of communication

Prejudice, attitude, personality, judging, preaching, moralizing, lecturing, overreacting, arguing, advising

69

Puberty

Period of growth and development where secondary sexual characteristics begin

70

Rationalization

Defense mechanism involving the use of reasonable excuses as behavior explanations

71

Reality orientation

Activities to help promote awareness of time, place, person

72

Retirement

Can cause emotional distress

73

Right to die

A patient should be able to choose if they would like to die or not

74

Rooting reflex

A touch on the cheek can cause opening of mouth and turn of the head in newborns

75

Self actualization

Obtaining full potential, confidence, self secure

76

Sexual needs of elderly

Completely normal

Does not cease due to age

77

Signs of abuse

Unexplained bruises
Fractures
Burns
Poor hygiene
Personality changes
Withdrawn or aggressive behavior

78

Signs of suicide

Appetite changes
Alcohol and drug abuse
Loss of interest in activities
Poor hygiene
Withdrawn

79

Social development of 2 year olds

->still don't play well with others
->sharing is a problem
->need: organization, consistency, routines

80

Social skills of children

->still don't play well with others
->sharing is a problem
->need: organization, consistency, routines

->easier friends become
->hard for kids with no self concept
->need parental approval, reassurance, peer acceptance

81

Socialization

Interactions with people

82

Stages of dying

1. denial - refuses to believe
2. anger - when no longer able to deny but unreasonably doing so
3. bargaining - accepts death, but wants more time
4. depression - realizes death will soon come
5. acceptance - understand the fact they will die

83

Sucking reflex

Slight touch to the lips triggers it

84

Sundowning

People with dementia who "sundown" get confused and agitated as the sun goes down

85

Suppression

Aware of unacceptable thoughts but refuses to deal with them

86

Thrombus

Blood clot

87

TIA's

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief period of time

88

Time frame for physical changes in elderly

.

89

Trust vs mistrust

stage occurs between birth and approximately 18 months of age. According to Erikson, the trust versus mistrust stage is the most important period in a person’s life

90

Vascular degeneration

Deterioration of blood vessels

91

Withdrawal

Individual ceases to communicate or physically removes them self from situations