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BSC 2010 - Biology I > Exam #3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #3 Deck (183)
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61

Catabolism provides _______.

energy

62

_______ requires energy.

Anabolism

63

What is thermodynamics?

The study of energy transformation

64

A system that is capable of taking energy from the surroundings, or releasing energy into the surroundings is referred to as an _____ system.

open

65

What type is the cell?

Open system

66

What does the first law of thermodynamics say?

Energy cannot be created, it can only be transformed

67

What's one word that can describe the first law of thermodynamics?

Transformations

68

What does the second law of thermodynamics say?

In all those transformations, the universe will increase in its disorder

69

Any transformation, the universe will increase in disorder, which is symbolized by the letter _ which is referred to as what?

S, entropy

70

G = ?

Free Energy

71

H = ?

Total Energy

72

T = ?

Temperature

73

S = ?

Entropy

74

What is the equation to calculate free energy?

G = H - TS
Free energy = Total Energy - Temperature*Entropy

75

If the energy of the product is less than the energy of the reactant, then the delta G value becomes ________, which means energy must have been _________.

negative, released.

76

If the energy of the product is greater than the energy of the reactant, then delta G becomes _________, which means energy must have been _________.

positive, absorbed

77

If Delta G is negative...
1) Endergonic or exergonic ?
2) H and S ( which increases, which decreases) ?
3) Stability
4) Favorable/Non favorable?
5) Spontaneous/Non spontaneous?

1) Exergonic
2) H decreases, S increases
3) More stable
4) Favorable
5) Spontaneous

78

If Delta G is positive...
1) Endergonic or exergonic ?
2) H and S ( which increases, which decreases) ?
3) Stability
4) Favorable/Non favorable?
5) Spontaneous/Non spontaneous?

1) Endergonic
2) H increases, S decreases
3) Less stable
4) Non favorable
5) Non spontaneous

79

If the system is at equilibrium... Delta G?

Delta G is 0, reached maximum stability and is no longer capable of doing work. Means death lol

80

If you breakdown starch...exergonic or endergonic?

Exergonic, release of energy

81

No process is perfect, we always lose some energy as _____.

heat

82

This is stated in the second law of thermodynamics, every process increases the S of the universe because.....?

you lose heat

83

What is an example of a catabolic process?

The hydrolysis of sucrose

84

Catabolism releases _______ energy in nutrients and provides that energy for _________.

chemical, anabolism

85

_______ fuels ________.

Catabolism fuels anabolism

86

Catabolism fuels anabolism but...it does not do so directly. You don't dismantle glucose every time you need energy. This is not efficient.
**Catabolism provides energy to make ____. *** Which in turn serves as the immediate source of energy for anabolism.

ATP

87

ATP is a _________.

nucleotide

88

ATP, in particular, is one of the four nucleotides used to make ___. The one with a in it...which is ?

RNA, adenosine (adenine ---> base)

89

What are the components of a nucleotide?

Base, sugar, phosphate

90

Three units of negative charge on the phosphates that are all in close proximity...what do they want to do?

Move apart. Like charges repel