Exam 3-Oral Cancer Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3-Oral Cancer Lecture 1 Deck (60):
1

Squamous Cell Carcinoma accounts for __% of cancers in the oral cavity

90% (could be as high as 95%)

2

What are three types of cancers that make up the other 10% of oral cancer (since SCC makes up 90%)

1.Sarcomas 2.Leukimias/Lymphomas 3.Other carcinomas/adenocarcinomas

3

In the US about how many NEW cases of OC are diagnosed every year?

30,000

4

In the US, about how many people will die this year from OC?

9,000

5

If you practice dentistry for 25 years, how many cases of OC are you likely to see?

2-3

6

What is the average survival rate from OC after 5 years?

50%

7

The American Cancer Society groups OC with what type of cancer? What is the survival rate of that cancer alone?

Pharyngeal Cancer...90%

8

Oral Cancer has the ____ LOWEST SURVIVAL RATE OF ANY CANCER

6th

9

OC is the _____ most common cancer in BLACK MALES

4th

10

OC is the ____ most common cancer in WHITE MALES

6th

11

OC has a higher death rate than these THREE BIG PUBLICIZED CANCERS:

Melanoma, Cervical Cancer, and Breast Cancer

12

The number of cases and the number of DEATHS attributable to the disease are relatively ________ over the last 5-6 decades

constant

13

What is the peak age range for incidence of OC?

50-70 years old

14

OC is Increasing incidence OVER age ___

70

15

OC increasing incidence UNDER age ___

40

16

Males out number females in a __:___ ratio

2:1

17

The overall INCIDENCE rate of the disease is actually _______ slightly

falling

18

In ___% of cases of oral cancer, the patient was/is a smoker

75% BOOM.

19

Ummm no shit Sherlock: Longer duration of smoking = _______ incidence of cancer...._________ usage of tobacco = increased incidence of cancer

INCREASED.....INCREASED

20

Interesting....Risk for ______ and ________ essentially = risk for cigarettes (for intraoral squamous
cell carcinoma)

cigars, pipe smoking

21

Smokeless Tobacco- A much ______ incidence of development of carcinoma when compared with smoked tobacco

LOWER

22

Smokeless Tobacco- usually asociated with prolonged use like ___ cans/week and for about ____ to ____ years of usage.

2-3 cans/wk...for 20-30 years of usage

23

Smokeless Tobacco- What is the major determinant in carcinogenicity? Which form is less carcinogenic?

Moist vs dry snuff....moist has a very low incidence of malignant transformation

24

Which type of abuse has a statistically GREATER risk for OC than Tobacco?

ALCOHOL ABUSE

25

The risk for EtOH abuse to develop into OC is greater than a smoker who smokes ___ packs per day!

2

26

What is the most prominent effect of EtOH on the oral tissue that makes it a carcinogen?

its a DRYING AGENT (alters epithelial metabolism)

27

What two side kicks (other consequences of abuse) does EtOH abuse have that cause cancer?

1.Nutritional deficiency 2. Detox limited c/o liver disease

28

What constitutes EtOH abuse?

6 EtOH equivalents/day

29

What has more of a risk for developing OC: Heavy Smoking and Minimum EtOH or Minimum Smoking and Heavy EtOH?

Minimum Smoking and heavy EtOH has a MUCH greater risk of OC development

30

What are the 4 factors that degrade the immune system and therefor open the door for cancer?

1.Aging 2.Chronic Nutritional Deficiency 3.Disease States 4.Theraputic intervention

31

What are the 4 types of Chronic Nutritional Deficiency that can contribute to cancer?

1.Iron deficiency anemia 2.Vit A Def. 3.Vit C Def 4.Vit E deficiency

32

What is another name for an Iron deficiency anemia?

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

33

MUY INTERESTING....Iron deficiency anemia (plummer-vinson syn) can lead to cancer for which two reasons?

1.Increase susceptibility to carcinogens 2.Increased permeability of epithelium

34

What does having a Vitamin A deficiency do with getting oral cancer? you lose "protective role against ________" whatever the f that means...

precancer

35

What does having a Vitamin CCC deficiency do with getting oral cancer? Decreased _________/________ of compounds leads to persistence of noxious stimuli

oxidation/reduction

36

What does having a Vitamin E deficiency do with getting oral cancer? Decreased _______ leads to persistence of _______ substances

anti-oxidant... ionized

37

What are three main chronic disease states/infections that could lead to Oral Cancer?

1.Candida 2.HPV 3.HHV

38

Why in the hell would a candida infection lead to OC? Epithelial __________ with disruption of maturation...Persistent/continuous ________ cell presence

hyperplasia...inflammatory

39

HPV and OC: Produces ________ of cell cycle regulation that compromise immune system surveillance

inhibitors

40

There is a significant increase in __________ carcinoma today due to HPV

oropharyngeal

41

Thirty years ago, 15% of the throat cancer was due to HPV, today it is ___%

80%

42

What are the two main areas of the oral cavity that are affected by HPV caused Oral Cancer?

oropharynx and base of tongue

43

What are the two main forms of HHV (please give # and nickname) that are closely associated with oral canceR?

1.HHV4 (Ebstein Barr) 2.HHV8 (kaposi's sarcoma-assoc herp)

44

Much like HPV, HHV Produces ________ of cell cycle regulation that compromise immune system surveillance

inhibitors

45

Any chronic disease state that results in persistent/continuous stimulation of the immune system can result in a gradual accumulation of ________ in the affected cells...What are three typical, everyday dental conditions that could theoretically lead to OC?

genetic defects...1.Diabetes 2.Periodontal Disease 3.Lichen Planus

46

Whats an example of a disease that lowers immune response and therefore can progress to oc?

AIDS

47

What are three examples of therapeutic interventions that can lead to oral cancer?

1.Chemo 2.radiaiton 3.Organ transplant meds

48

What are two examples of syndromes (genetic defects) that are risk factors for SOME cancers?? Has there been a specific syndrome that has a risk for ORAL cancer?

1.Basal Cell Nervus Syndrome 2.Gardner's Syndrome....NOT a specific syndrome assoc with OC

49

Family history of oral cancer _______ risk of acquiring oral cancer.

increases

50

DID YOU KNOW: Only ___% of US adults can correctly identify an early warning sign of oral cancer

25%

51

DID YOU KNOW: Only ___% of US adults know the risk of alcohol abuse

13%

52

HOLY S! Only ___% of US adults have had an oral cancer exam

14%

53

Some disturbing news, In ___% of new cases, the patients have absolutely no evident risk factors

25%

54

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? The white or red plaques called ________ and ________

leukoplakia or erythroplakia

55

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? Erythroplakia-Often with a smooth _______ appearing surface

velvety

56

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? Erythroplakia-May have slightly ______ margin

raised

57

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? Erythroplakia-May have _____ areas speckled over the surface

white

58

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? Ulcer-often with a raised, ______ border

rolled

59

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? Ulcer-ften with a very deep, central ______

crater

60

WHAT DOES SCC LOOK LIKE?? An _________ mass...Often with an irregular ________

Exophytic....surface texture