Exam 4 Module 8 Drug Purpose Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Module 8 Drug Purpose Deck (49):
1

4 main sympathetic receptors

Alpha 1
Alpha 2
Beta 1
Beta 2

2

Alpha 1

-Generally about stimulation
-Stimulation = more exictation, mydriasis, arterial constriction
-Block = less excitation, miosis, arterial vasodilation

3

Where are alpha 1 receptors located?

Eye, salivary glands, GI/GU sphincters, arterioles

4

phenylephrine (Sudafed PE)

Alpha 1 agonist
decongestant drug

5

doxazosin (Cardura)

-Alpha 1 receptor blocker
-Blocks sympathetic stimulation, we get relaxation
-Used for BPH

6

Alpha 2

-Generally about relaxation
-Stimulation = more relaxation
-Block = less relaxation

7

Where are alpha 2 receptors located?

Smooth muscle NMJ synapse

8

clonidine (Catapres)

-alpha 2 agonist
-Agonizes receptors and causes more relaxation
-Good BP medication

9

Beta 1

-Generally about stimulation
-Stimulation = more stimulation, increase conductivity, increase renin
-Block = less stimulation, decrease conductivity, decrease renin

10

Where are beta 1 receptors located?

Heart, brain, kidney

11

atenolol (Tenormin)

-Blocks beta 1 receptors in the heart
-selective antagonist
-less stimulation, decreases conductivity
-lowers BP

12

dobutamine (dobutrex)

-Beta 1 selective agonist
-Use in shock to improve the conductivity stimulation of the heart

13

Beta 2

-Generally about stimulation
-Stimulation = more stimulation, dilation, increase lipolysis, improves insulin
-Block = less stimulation, constriction, decrease lipolysis, impairs insulin

14

Where are beta 2 receptors located?

smooth muscle, bronchioles, liver, uterus

15

albuterol (Proventil)

-Beta 2 agonist
-Used to open airways
-dilation of the bronchioles by stimluating beta 2
-will also hit beta 1 which causes increased heart rate

16

terbutaline (Brethine)

-Beta 2 agonist
-Use for premature labor which causes the uterus to relax

17

If we over stimulate the sympathetic nervous system we will have....

-decrease in cardiac output because of too fast of heart rate, too slow of contraction

18

Adrenergic agonist/ sympathomimetic

-stimulate all of the adrenergic receptors in the SNS
-induce fight or flight
-frequently used to treat shock

19

Beta 1 selective adrenergic blocking agents

-Does not block the beta 1 receptors responsible for bronchodilation
-preferred in patients with respiratory problems
-used to treat HTN, angina, and HF
-must be tapered off

20

BP example with 4 receptors

Alpha 1 agonist = increase BP
alpha 1 antagonist = decrease BP
Alpha 2 agonist = decrease BP
Alpha 2 antagonist = increase BP
Beta 1/2 agonist = increase BP
Beta 1/2 antagonist = decrease BP

21

Parasympathetic receptors

-Muscarinic: most are this
-Nicotinic: NMJ and ganglia
-"feed and breed"

22

Where are M1 receptors located?

CNS and enteric nervous system

23

Where are M2 receptors located?

heart

24

Where are M3 receptors located?

-exocrine glands
-GI
-eyes
-lungs
-GU

25

What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Ach

26

Stimulation of M3 in exocrine glands..

-increase exocrine gland secretion
-see patients sweating

27

Stimulation of M3 in the gut..

-increases gut motility
-go to the bathroom more often

28

Stimulation of M3 in pupillary sphincter...

-causes miosis: constriction of the pupil

29

Stimulation of M3 in ciliary muscle causes

accommodation: ability to focus near and far almost instantaneously

30

Stimulation of M3 in lungs and GU causes

broncho constriction and bladder constriction

31

bethanechol (Urecholine)

-direct acting cholinergic
-used for urinary retention

32

carbechol (Carbastat)

-direct acting cholinergic
-used for glaucoma, urinary retention

33

methacholine (Provocholine)

-direct acting cholinergic
-asthma challenge test

34

pilocarpine (Salagen)

-direct acting cholinergic
-used to test for cystic fibrosis
-sweat test

35

Anti-acetylcholine esterases cause you to become...

more cholinergic

36

Neostigmine (Prostigmin)

indirect cholinergic
-used in urinary retention
-used in myasthenia gravis
-used as an antidote to NMJ blockers

37

pyridostigmine (Mestinon)

indirect cholinergic
-used in urinary retention
-used in myasthenia gravis
-used as an antidote to NMJ blockers

38

physostigmine (Antilirium)

-indirect cholinergic
-FIXostigmine
-used to counteract atropine overdose

39

The rescue drug for an anticholinergic drug is...

cholinergic drug

40

donepezil (Aricept)

indirect cholinergic
-used to treat Alzheimer's/dementia
-allows what Ach is there to be productive instead of being broken down

41

What receptors do anticholinergic drugs work on?

M1, M2, M3

42

Antagonizing M3 causes..

-Decrease exocrine secretions
-Decrease gut motility
-Mydriasis
-Cycloplegia (no accommodation)
-Broncho relaxation
-Bladder distention

43

atropine (Atreza)

-anticholinergic
-used to create mydriasis
-used as antidote to cholinergic poisoning
-used to prevent or slow down drooling
-used as a rescue drug for bradycardia

44

ipratropium (Atropent)

anticholinergic
-used to treat asthma
-COPD
-antagonizing M3 gives us bronchorelaxation

45

oxybutinin (ditropan)

anticholinergic
-used to help with bladder spasms and urinary retention issues

46

scopolamine (Maldemar)

anticholinergic
-used for motion sickness
-hits M1 and causes CNS depression

47

drug of choice for a cholinergic crisis

atropine or whatever anticholinergic is available

48

edrophinum

cholinergic drug used to discern between a cholinergic and myesthenia crisis
-if myesthenia crisis, the pt will get better (bc they had too little Ach)
-if its a cholinergic crisis, the pt won't get better (they have too much Ach)

49

the 4 aunties

antipsychotics
antihistamine
antidepressant
anti-parkinsons