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Flashcards in Drugs for Final Deck (101):
1

Hib vaccine

-bacterial
-haemophilus influenzae- NOT the flu

2

Meningococcal vaccine

-bacterial
-bacteria that gets into the meninges that causes neurological compromise and often death

3

pneumococcal vaccine

-bacterial
-pneumonia

4

typhoid vaccine

-bacterial
-contaminated water and food

5

diphtheria vaccine

-bacterial
-respiratory illness that causes plaque to build over the posterior pharynx; patient suffocates

6

tetanus vaccine

-bacterial
-found in the ground, anaerobic; likes to grow in deep wounds
-causes permanent muscle contraction and respiratory failure

7

pertussis vaccine

-bacterial
-whooping cough, not lethal in adults, but lethal in babies
-paroxysmal cough

8

influenza vaccine

-viral
-flu shot

9

hep A vaccine

-viral
-liver infection from contaminated water

10

hep B vaccine

-viral
-liver infection from sharing blood and needles, sexually transmitted

11

measles vaccine

-viral
-infection that causes great damage and has a high death rate from pneumonia

12

mumps vaccine

-viral
-infectious agent that causes swelling in the neck; can create infertility esp in males

13

rubella vaccine

-viral
-minor childhood infection; can damage fetus

14

polio vaccine

-viral
-polio attacks the nervous system

15

rabies vaccine

-viral
-from bats, dogs, armadillo; once you show symptoms you're dead

16

smallpox vaccine

-viral
-causes pneumonia, distinct rash

17

varicella vaccine

-viral
-chicken pox; mild childhood illness, awful in adults who have never been exposed

18

yellow fever vaccine

-viral
-causes liver damage which causes jaundice

19

herpes zoster vaccine

-viral
-shingles

20

sera

-immune globulins: proteins that are involved in conferring immunity
-sera is from someone else's body

21

types of sera

-HBIG: hep B vaccine
-RIG: rabies immune globulin; NOT vaccine; its a sera from someone else's body who has been exposed but has not gotten sick
-TIG- tetanus immune globulin

22

antitoxins

clear out the toxic results of the body working on the invading toxin

23

antivenins

works against the actual enzyme process in the poison

24

interleukins

immune modulator: mimics the body's natural interleukins; stimulates cellular immunity; creates antibodies (T and B cells); synthetic

25

interferons

-immune modulator stimulants
-naturally produce proteins that the body sends out in response to a viral invasion

26

interleukins

-immune modulator stimulants
-mimics the body's natural interleukins; stimulates cellular immunity; creates antibodies (T and B cells); synthetic

27

colony-stimulating factors

-immune modulator stimulant
-stimulates the bone marrow to produce neutrophils

28

immune modulator suppressants

-blocks the release of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response
-used in autoimmunity and organ transplants
-causes pt to feel horrible, flu-like

29

rimantadine

-antiviral
-for influenza A; prevents the shedding of the viral protein coat so it can't replicate
-anticholinergic effects
-treat flu within 48 hours of symptom onset

30

acyclovir

-antiviral
-for herpes and CMV (cytomegalovirus)
-dangerous, causes neuropathies, parasthesias, confusion, renal tox, bone marrow suppression

31

terbinafine

-antifungal
-for nail and scalp infections
-causes bone marrow suppression, liver tox, (must look at liver labs for this drugs)

32

metronidazole

-antiprotozoal and antibacterial
-giardia and other protozoal and bacterial infections
-causes retinal damage, flu-like response, ototoxicity, chincinism
-could cause cancer and SJS
-any alcohol while taking this will cause disulfiram-like reaction: n/v, flushing of skin, tachycardia, shortness of breath

33

mebendazole

-antihelmintic
-for worms (usually pinworms, do tape test)
-causes metabolic collapse in the worm
-contraindicated in pregnancy

34

antineoplastics

-target rapidly multiplying cells
-goal is to kill the cancer just enough that the immune system can take over and finish the job
-nursing interventions: do whatever it takes to keep the immune system functioning; move toward wellness

35

cyclophosphamide

-non cell cycle specific antineoplastic alkylating agent
-for slower growing cancers like lymphomas and myelomas
-works by bursting the cells --> acid comes out of it and we get a lot of uric acid, which can be fatal for liver and kidneys
-side effects: ***hemorragic cystitis, bladder bleeding
-nursing interventions: the drug mesna is used for prevention of hemorrhagic cystitis

36

allopurinol

-antigout agent; xanthine oxidase inhibitor
-prevention and treatment of gout
(because of acid)

37

methotrexate (MTX)

-antineoplasic antimetabolites
-S phase of cell cycle
-used for ectopic pregnancy
-used for rapidly growing cells like psoriasis
-causes hypersensitivity reactions, bone marrow suppression
-nursing interventions: working on S phase inhibits folic acid, so pt should take leukovorin (folic acid)

38

doxyrubicin

-antineoplastic antibiotics
-S phase of cell cycle, breast cancer
-causes heart problems
-nursing interventions: check for hypertrophy, mouth sores, dexrazoxane reduces heart problems

39

tamoxifen

-antineoplastic hormone modulator
-M phase of cell cycle, prevents mitosis of cell; for breast cancer
-causes hot flashes, CV incidents, pulmonary embolism
-drug-drug: anticoagulants increase chance of bleeding
-nursing process: teratogenic, use barrier contraceptives

40

vincristine

-antineoplasic mitotic inhibitors
-M phase of cell cycle, prevents mitosis; for breast cancer
-side effects: SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH), very damaging to the skin tissue so we can't administer through a peripheral line

41

trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole

-Bactrim
-broad spectrum antibiotic; fluoroquinolones
-interfereswith the cell wall's abilit to stay intact with the bacteria; does so by interfering with folic acid
-less dangerous than cipro, most safe of the fluoroquinolones
-drug-drug: diabetic meds could cause hypoglycemia

42

glucagon

-pancreatics
-antidote to insulin
-give when pt is showing s/s of hypogylcemia
-increases the blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin release and accelerating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver to release glucose
-s/e: hypoTN, and HTN, hyperglycemia (but hypo is more dangerous, so when in doubt, give it)

43

phenobarbital

-barbiturate
-actions: general CNS depression that inhibits neuronal impulse conduction in ascending RAS
-s/e: laryngospasm, hypersensitivity causes serum sickness and SJS
-taper gradually

44

diazepam

-benzodiazepine
-actions: act in the limbic and RAS to make GAMMA amniobutric acid more effective, causing interference with neuron firing

45

flumazenil

antidote to benzodiazepine overdose

46

fluoxetine

-SSRI
-blocks reuptake of serotonin with little or no effect on NE

47

benztropine

-Cogentin
-antiparkinson agent, anticholinergic
-antidote to EPS
-actions: synthetic, made to haev a greater affinity for the cholinergic receptor sites in the CNS than for those in the PNS, but still block (to some extent) the cholinergic receptors that are respinsible for stimulation of the PNS's pot ganglionic effectors... essentially, block Ach receptors
-drug-drug: don't use with other anticholinergics

48

phenytoin

-Dilantin
-generalized antiseizure agent, hydantoins
-generally less sedating than other antiepileptics
-actions: stabilize nerve membranes throughout the CNS directly by influencing ionic channels in the cell membrane thereby decreasing the excitability and hyperexcitability to stimulation
-expected side effects: teeth stains and gum hypertrophy
-therapeutic level: 10-20 mcg/ml

49

lithium

-mood stabilizer
-bipolar disorder
-actions: alters Na+ transport in nerve and muscle cells, inhibits release of NE and dopamine but not serotonin from stimulated neurons; increases the interneuronal stores of NE and dopamine slightly and decreased stores of second messengers
-contra: hyponatremia
-nursing process: take with food or milk, adequate intake of Na+, small, frequent meals to increase secretions and decrease discomfort
-lithium levels: 0.6-1.2 mEq/L

50

morphine

-opioid agonist
-actions: react with the opioid receptors throughout the body to cause analgesia, sedation, and euphoria

51

naloxone

antidote for morphine

52

succinylcholine

-Anectine
-depolarizing NMJ blocking agent
-used during surgery to produce skeletal muscle paralysis
-attaches to the Ach receptor site on the muscle cell causing a prolonged depolarization of the muscle
-antidote is a cholinesterase inhibitor

53

atenolol

-beta blocker
-blocks beta 1 in the heart
-decreases excitability, CO, and BP

54

neostigmine

-anti-Ach-esterase
-for urinary retention, myasthenia gravis
-actions: preserves what Ach is there and does not allow the Ach-esterase to break down the Ach
-antidote: atropine

55

digoxin

-aminoglycosides/ cardiac glycosides
-negative chronotropy, positive intotropy, negative dromotropy
-antidote: Dig ImmuneFab

56

lidocaine

-class 1 antiarrhythmic
-blocks Na+ in the muscle

57

propranolol

-class 2 antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive
-blocks beta receptors in the heart and kidneys

58

amiodarone

-class 3 antiarrhythmics
-blocks K+

59

diltiazem

-class 4 antiarrhythmics and antihypertensive
-blocks calcium channels

60

nitroglycerin

-vasodilator/ nitrate
-used to treat angina (arteries to the heart are not getting enough blood)
-dilates blood vessels to allow for more blood flow to the heart
-causes raging headaches
-MONA- Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerin, Aspirin

61

metformin

-biguanide
-for type 2 diabetes (first line drug choice because it is the safest)
-actions: decreases the production and increases the uptake of glucose
-adverse effects: lactic acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis), does not cause hypoglycemia

62

atorvastatin

-HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statins/ antihyperlipidemics)
-actions: inhibits enzyme that works in the liver
-s/e: rhabdo

63

Vitamin B3

increases rate of triglyceride destruction

64

warfarin

-anticoagulant
-blocks vitamin K synthesis
-used most commonly for Afib
-used to treat, not just preventative, more powerful than enoxaparin

65

enoxaparin

-anticoagulant
-safer than heparin; give for immobile patients; give qd
-used to prevent the problem

66

ferrous gluconate

-antianemic
-used to treat iron deficiency anemia
-treat for 6 months, time it takes for the body to store enough iron to meet daily requirements on its own

67

epoetin alpha

-used to stimulate RBC production from the kidneys
-for pts getting chemo

68

clomiphene

-Clomid
-used for infertility in men and women
-actions: directly or by stimulating the hypothalamus to increase FSH and LH levels, leading to ovarial follicular development and maturation of ova
-contra: primary ovarian failure, thyroid or adrenal dysfunction, ovarian cysts, pregnancy, idiopathic uterine bleeding, and known allergy
s/e: risk of multiple births and birth defects; overstimulation of the reproductive system; fluid retention; uterine bleeding; gynecomastia

69

diphenhydramine

-first gen antihistamine
-for allergies
-actions: selective blocking of H1 receptors in the CNS and PNS, anticholinergic stimulation
-s/e: anticholinergic

70

enalapril

-ACE Inhibitor
-treats HTN (first line)
-prevent angiotensin 1 from becoming angiotensin 2 (a powerful vasoconstrictor)

71

furosemide

-loop diuretic
-for acute CHF, pulmonary edema, edema associated with renal or liver disease
-blocks the chloride pump in the loop of henley and the DCT
-loss of Na+, chloride, and tons of fluid
-s/e: alkalosis, hypo-everything, hearing loss (usually reversible)

72

acetazolamide

-carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (diuretics)
-used as an adjunct to other diuretics
-actions: block the effects of carbonic anhydrase; slows the movement of hydrogen ions; more Na+ and bicarb are lost in the urine
-s/e: metabolic acidosis, parasthesias, confusion, drowsiness
-drug-drug: salycilates decrease excretion and drug becomes toxic; lithium; sulfonamides bc could cause SJS or TENS

73

mannitol

-osmotic diuretic
-used for increased cranial pressure (crosses the BBB), ARF due to shock, drug overdose, trauma
-actions: pulls water into renal tubule without Na+ loss
-contra: renal impairment and anuria; pulmonary congestion, intracranial bleeding, dehydration, CHF
-s/e: n/v hypotension, light-headedness, confusion, headache (s/s of shock)

74

spironolactone

-potassium sparing diuretics
-pts who are at risk for hypokalemia; hyperaldosteronism
-actions: cause a loss of Na+ while retaining K+; blocks the actions of aldosterone in the distal tubule
-drug-drug: aspirin

75

ciprofloxacin

-anti-infectives, fluoroquinolones
-for bacterial infections, esp UTI (e.coli)
-actions: acts specifically within the urinary tract to destroy bacteria, either through direct antibiotic effect or acidification of the urine

76

nitrofurantoin

-anti-infectives
-for bacterial infections, esp UTI (e.coli)
-actions: acts specifically within the urinary tract to destroy bacteria, either through direct antibiotic effect or acidification of the urine

77

albuterol

-sympathomimetic bronchodilator
-rescue drug for asthma
-actions: short acting beta 2 selective adrenergic agonist

78

salmeterol

-sympathomimetic bronchodilator
-maintenance drug for asthma
-actions: long acting beta 2 selective adrenergic agonist

79

ipratropium

-anticholinergic bronchodilator
-treat asthma
-actions: blocks Ach receptors in smooth muscle
-contra: loss of Ach, allergy to soy or peanuts, BPH and glaucoma
-s/e: anticholinergic

80

theophylline

-xanthine bronchodilators
-for the treatment of bronchial swelling and apnea
-actions: inhibits the release of histamine, effect Ca+ mobilization, thereby relaxing smooth muscle
-therapeutic level: 10-20 mcg/ml

81

fluticasone (Flovent)

-inhaled steroid
-for maintenance or exacerbation but they are not immediate- can take hours to days to become effective
-actions: interfere with the inflammatory cascade and promotes beta-adrenergic receptor activity (suppresses immune sustem to cause anti-inflammation
-nursing process: rinse mouth after use, have to ween off

82

sucralfate

-GI protectant
-promotes ulcer healing
-actions: forms an ulcer-adherent complex at duodenal ulcer sites, protecting the sites against acid, pepsin, and bile salts
-must have on an empty stomach

83

aluminum salts

-antacids
-for hyperacidity and hyperactivity of stomach
-actions: neutralize stomach acid by direct chemical reaction (with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarb
-contra: don't use if there's any possibility of obstruction; not for long-term use

84

meclizine

-Antivert
-antiemetic
-for prevention and treatment of n/v
-actions: anticholinergics that act as antihistamines and block the transmission of impulses to the CTZ in the medulla

85

promethazine

-Phenergan
-antiemetic
-treatment of n/v and hiccoughs
-actions: depresses various areas of the CNS, anticholinergic

86

clorpromazine

-neuroleptics; typical antipsycotics
-actions: anticholinergic, antihistamine, alpha adrenergic blocking effects; block dopamine receptors preventing the stimulation of the post-synaptic neurons by dopamine; also suppress the RAS, limiting the stimuli coming into the brain

87

clozapine

-neuroleptics; atypical antipsycotics
-actions: block both dopamine and serotonin receptors, helping alleviate some of the unpleasant side effects of typical

88

testosterone

-Androderm
-for replacement therapy in hypogonadism and delayed puberty; inoperable breast cancer; prevent ovulation to treat endometriosis
-actions: increase the retention of nitrogen, Na+ and K+; decrease excretion of Ca+; increase protein anabolism; decrease protein catabilism; increase production of RBCs
-s/e: acne, edema, hirsutism; deepening of voice, oily skin and hair, weight gain, decreased breast size, testicular atrophy; flushing, sweating, dizziness, sleep disorders, altered electrolytes; anti-estrogen effects in women
-lab tests: thyroid function, creatinine, liver, polycythemia

89

sildenafil

-Viagra
-ED agents/ vasodilators/ phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors
-for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary atreal HTN
-actions: selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 receptors (PDE5) and increases nitrous oxide levels, allowing blood to flow into the corpus cavernosum

90

estradiol

-HRT (hormone replacement therapy)
-estrogen replacement in menopausal women
-s/e: can place women at higher risk for cardiac events

91

hydrocortisone

-mineralocorticoids
-for replacement therapy in primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency/ needed in times of stress
-actions: holds Na+ and water in the body

92

prednisone

-glucocorticoids
-for short-term treatment of inflammatory disorders
-actions: decrease the prduction of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in the inflammatory cascade; enter target cells and bind to cytoplasmic receptors; initiate many complex reactions responsible for anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects
s/e: retention, HTN, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia (because the drug opposes the action of insulin), arrhythmias, CV collapse, fractures, acute and fatal gastritis, weight gain, fat deposits, risk for adrenal failure (bc we put the adrenals to sleep)

93

dexamethasone

-glucocorticoids
-for short-term treatment of inflammatory disorders
-actions: decrease the prduction of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in the inflammatory cascade; enter target cells and bind to cytoplasmic receptors; initiate many complex reactions responsible for anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects
s/e: retention, HTN, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia (because the drug opposes the action of insulin), arrhythmias, CV collapse, fractures, acute and fatal gastritis, weight gain, fat deposits, risk for adrenal failure (bc we put the adrenals to sleep)

94

insulin

-antidiabetic/ hormones/ pancreatics
-treatment of type 1 diabetes and type 2 if diabetes can't be controlled by other agents
-actions: replacing what the pancrease needs to be doing- lowers blood sugar
-contra: hypoglycemia
-s/e: hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, n/v, dehydration, deep gasping breaths (Kussmals), confusion, ketones

95

levothyroxine

-Synthroid
-for hypothyroidism
-actions: synthetic production of T4; increases the metabolic rate of body tissues, increasing oxygen consumption, respiration, and HR; the rate of fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism; and growth maturation

96

raloxifene

-estrogen receptor modulators
-used for postmenopausal osteoporosis
-actions: modulating effects on estrogen receptors to increase bone mineral density; does NOT stimulate the growth of the uterine lining as straight estrogen would do
-s/e: dry vaginal mucosa and flushing

97

desmopressin

-posterior pituitary hormones
-used in diabetes insipidus
-acts like ADH and has vasopressor properties (increasing BP), opposite of SIADH
-nasal spray

98

alendronate

-Fosamax
-antihypercalcemic agents; bisphosphonates
-for osteoporosis; slows normal and abnormal bone resorption
-actions: acts on the serum levels of Ca+ and not directly on the parathyroid gland or PTH
-make sure they stay upright for at least 30 mins after admin

99

Ranitidine

-Zantac
-histamine 2 antagonist
-short-term treatment of duodenal or gastric ulcer

100

omeprazole

Prilosec
-proton pump inhibitor
-prevents final step of acid production
-adverse: c. Diff infection (drug takes the acid down to almost nothing), long term use could lead to gastric cancer

101

misoprostol

Cytotec
-prostaglandins
-treatment of NSAID- induced ulcers
-s/e: bleeding, miscarriage, menstrual disorders