Flashcards in Exam 5 Deck (80):
What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?
Frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital
What is the frontal lobe responsible for?
Motor control, eye movement control, logical thinking and planning, personality, and speech
Where it the frontal lobe located?
Where is Broca's area located?
What is Broca's area responsible for?
Speech production; actually the saying the words that you think
What is the parietal lobe responsible for?
Sensory and taste
Where its the parietal love located?
What is the occipital lobe responsible for?
Vision; figuring out what you see
What is the temporal lobe responsible for?
Hearing, equilibrium, and language
Where is Wernicke's area located?
What is Wernicke's area responsible for?
Understanding speech; making sense of the words spoken
What is the hypothalamus responsible for?
Temperature, how you perceive pain, and homeostasis (blood pressure, hormones from pituitary, produces ADH and Oxytocin)
What is the thalamus responsible for?
Filters information going to the brain and lets some pass and stops other - secretary; sends messages to consciousness
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
Muscle memory; motor movement you don't have to think about, static equilibrium, propresoceptoin (knowing where the body is in space)
What is the corpus callous responsible for?
Allows communication from he body to the brain; crosses over (right side of the body goes to the left side of the brain)
What is the basal nuclei responsible for?
Regulation of mood and complex behavior
Which branch of the spine do we find lateral horns in the vertebrae?
What is the function of the dorsal (posterior) horn?
Receive sensory information from the body and sends it onward to the brain
What is the function of the ventral (anterior) horn?
Sends out motor neurons
What is the function of the lateral horn?
Houses cell bodies that coordinate with the sympathetic nervous system
How does myelination of axons affect the nervous system?
Increases speed of synapses due to jumping from one axon the next
How does the diameter of axons affect the nervous system?
A great diameter increases the speed of the synapses
What are Schawnn cells?
Myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What are oligodendrocytes?
Myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS)
Describe the ascending pathway
Impulses are sent from the body to the spinal cord. Impulse enters through the dorsal horn and then the information crosses over to the other side and continue up through the spinal cord to the thalamus. Information ends up in the somatosensory cortex.
Which tract is pain carried on?
What is detected in damaged tissues that signals pain?
K+, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
Pain in the peripheral body send which neurotransmitters?
Glutamate, substance P, and nitric oxide
How do the neurotransmitters synapse in the spinal cord?
Use of nitric oxide
Describe the somatic sensory pathway
Describe the descending pathway
The information goes down trough the thalamus, down the spinal cord, crosses over at the dorsal horn and releases neurotransmitters to alleviate pain. The information is sent out to the body from the spinal cord.
What part of the brain influences how you perceive pain?
What are the receptors for pain called?
The hypothalamus release which neurotransmitters as a response to pain?
Norepinephrine, GABA, serotonin, and opioids (endorphins and enkephalins)
What do opioids do?
The reduce the amount of substance P and glutamate while not picking up on nitric oxide.
Name the main structures of the eye
Cornea, iris, pupil, lens, sclera, chorioid, retina, macula densa, fovea, optic disk (blind spot), and optic nerve
Where is the aqueous humor produced in the eye?
What happens when there is increased fluid in the chamber and the pressure is increased and pushes into the vitreous body?
Glaucoma - kills cells on the other side and loose peripheral vision
What does the lens do?
It is responsible for focusing; it's connected to the ciliary muscles to relax or contract
When the lens is relaxed what is it's shape?
Round = close vision
When the lens is constricted what is it's shape?
Flat = far sighted vision
As we age the lens loses its elasticity (prevents from rounding) can no longer see up close
What is housed in the retina?
Rods and cones
What are the rods responsible for?
Peripheral vision; black and white
What are the cones responsible for?
light; color vision
What is the fovea?
Place in the retina at the back of the eye where the light should be hitting to producing correct vision
What do you find in the macula dense?
Nearsighted vision due to the eye being too long
Farsighted vision due to the eye being too short
Name the main structures of the ear
Auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, bone ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), oval window, round window, eustachian tube, cochlea, and semicircular canals
What is the path of sound?
Starts at the auricle, then goes through the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, bone ossicles, oval window, cochlea, and semicircular canals.
Do kids or teachers hear at a higher frequency?
What are the semicircular canals responsible for?
Detect body motion and keep balance
Feeling like you are spinning when you are really not
Define full consciousness
Oriented X3 - who, where, and when
Can't think rapidly or clearly
Don't know or are not able to think and answer - lose the when, then the place
Not able to move very much; not oriented X3
Can be aroused, but will fall asleep when not aroused
Condition where patient is only able to be aroused due to painful or vigorous stimuli
Define light coma
Won't talk, but can sense pain purposeful movement
No purposeful movement
Define deep coma
Stimuli from one eye are ignored, and the eye tends to wander
A trinucleotide repeat disorder on chromosome 4
Bulbous distention of a vessel
Define anterograde amnesia
Inability to form new memories
Define coup injury
Damage to the brain behind the area of trauma
Difficulty with the production or interpretation of speech
Loss of cognitive function due to progressive formation of beta-amyloid plaques
Define tonsillar herniation
Increased ICP in the infratentorium forces cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum
Define Guillian-Barre syndrome
Autoimmune destruction of myelin sheath created by Schawnn cells
Idiopathic loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantial nigra
Deviation of one eye when look at a specific object
Inflammation of the brain caused by viruses that can be carried by mosquitoes
Define amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Disease where a patient loses upper and lower motor neuron function
Define spastic paralysis
Rigidity that is characterized by the loss of upper motor neurons
Define Multiple Sclerosis
Autoimmune destruction of oligodendrocytes
Disease characterized by susceptibility to have seizures