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Pathophysiology Lab > Exam 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 5 Deck (80):
1

What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital

2

What is the frontal lobe responsible for?

Motor control, eye movement control, logical thinking and planning, personality, and speech

3

Where it the frontal lobe located?

Pre-central gyrus

4

Where is Broca's area located?

Frontal lobe

5

What is Broca's area responsible for?

Speech production; actually the saying the words that you think

6

What is the parietal lobe responsible for?

Sensory and taste

7

Where its the parietal love located?

Post-central gyrus

8

What is the occipital lobe responsible for?

Vision; figuring out what you see

9

What is the temporal lobe responsible for?

Hearing, equilibrium, and language

10

Where is Wernicke's area located?

Temporal lobe

11

What is Wernicke's area responsible for?

Understanding speech; making sense of the words spoken

12

What is the hypothalamus responsible for?

Temperature, how you perceive pain, and homeostasis (blood pressure, hormones from pituitary, produces ADH and Oxytocin)

13

What is the thalamus responsible for?

Filters information going to the brain and lets some pass and stops other - secretary; sends messages to consciousness

14

What is the cerebellum responsible for?

Muscle memory; motor movement you don't have to think about, static equilibrium, propresoceptoin (knowing where the body is in space)

15

What is the corpus callous responsible for?

Allows communication from he body to the brain; crosses over (right side of the body goes to the left side of the brain)

16

What is the basal nuclei responsible for?

Regulation of mood and complex behavior

17

Which branch of the spine do we find lateral horns in the vertebrae?

Thoracic

18

What is the function of the dorsal (posterior) horn?

Receive sensory information from the body and sends it onward to the brain

19

What is the function of the ventral (anterior) horn?

Sends out motor neurons

20

What is the function of the lateral horn?

Houses cell bodies that coordinate with the sympathetic nervous system

21

How does myelination of axons affect the nervous system?

Increases speed of synapses due to jumping from one axon the next

22

How does the diameter of axons affect the nervous system?

A great diameter increases the speed of the synapses

23

What are Schawnn cells?

Myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

24

What are oligodendrocytes?

Myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS)

25

Describe the ascending pathway

Impulses are sent from the body to the spinal cord. Impulse enters through the dorsal horn and then the information crosses over to the other side and continue up through the spinal cord to the thalamus. Information ends up in the somatosensory cortex.

26

Which tract is pain carried on?

Spinothalamic tract

27

What is detected in damaged tissues that signals pain?

K+, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes

28

Pain in the peripheral body send which neurotransmitters?

Glutamate, substance P, and nitric oxide

29

How do the neurotransmitters synapse in the spinal cord?

Use of nitric oxide

30

Describe the somatic sensory pathway

?

31

Describe the descending pathway

The information goes down trough the thalamus, down the spinal cord, crosses over at the dorsal horn and releases neurotransmitters to alleviate pain. The information is sent out to the body from the spinal cord.

32

What part of the brain influences how you perceive pain?

Hypothalamus

33

What are the receptors for pain called?

Nociceptors

34

The hypothalamus release which neurotransmitters as a response to pain?

Norepinephrine, GABA, serotonin, and opioids (endorphins and enkephalins)

35

What do opioids do?

The reduce the amount of substance P and glutamate while not picking up on nitric oxide.

36

Name the main structures of the eye

Cornea, iris, pupil, lens, sclera, chorioid, retina, macula densa, fovea, optic disk (blind spot), and optic nerve

37

Where is the aqueous humor produced in the eye?

Ciliary body

38

What happens when there is increased fluid in the chamber and the pressure is increased and pushes into the vitreous body?

Glaucoma - kills cells on the other side and loose peripheral vision

39

What does the lens do?

It is responsible for focusing; it's connected to the ciliary muscles to relax or contract

40

When the lens is relaxed what is it's shape?

Round = close vision

41

When the lens is constricted what is it's shape?

Flat = far sighted vision

42

Define presbyopia

As we age the lens loses its elasticity (prevents from rounding) can no longer see up close

43

What is housed in the retina?

Rods and cones

44

What are the rods responsible for?

Peripheral vision; black and white

45

What are the cones responsible for?

light; color vision

46

What is the fovea?

Place in the retina at the back of the eye where the light should be hitting to producing correct vision

47

What do you find in the macula dense?

Rods

48

Define myopia

Nearsighted vision due to the eye being too long

49

Define hyperopia

Farsighted vision due to the eye being too short

50

Name the main structures of the ear

Auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, bone ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), oval window, round window, eustachian tube, cochlea, and semicircular canals

51

What is the path of sound?

Starts at the auricle, then goes through the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, bone ossicles, oval window, cochlea, and semicircular canals.

52

Do kids or teachers hear at a higher frequency?

Kids

53

What are the semicircular canals responsible for?

Detect body motion and keep balance

54

Define vertigo

Feeling like you are spinning when you are really not

55

Define full consciousness

Oriented X3 - who, where, and when

56

Define confusion

Can't think rapidly or clearly

57

Define disoriented

Don't know or are not able to think and answer - lose the when, then the place

58

Define tethargy

Not able to move very much; not oriented X3

59

Define obtendation

Can be aroused, but will fall asleep when not aroused

60

Define stupor

Condition where patient is only able to be aroused due to painful or vigorous stimuli

61

Define light coma

Won't talk, but can sense pain purposeful movement

62

Define coma

No purposeful movement

63

Define deep coma

Non-responsive

64

Define amblyopia

Stimuli from one eye are ignored, and the eye tends to wander

65

Define Huntington's

A trinucleotide repeat disorder on chromosome 4

66

Define aneurysm

Bulbous distention of a vessel

67

Define anterograde amnesia

Inability to form new memories

68

Define coup injury

Damage to the brain behind the area of trauma

69

Define aphaisia

Difficulty with the production or interpretation of speech

70

Define Alzhemier's

Loss of cognitive function due to progressive formation of beta-amyloid plaques

71

Define tonsillar herniation

Increased ICP in the infratentorium forces cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum

72

Define Guillian-Barre syndrome

Autoimmune destruction of myelin sheath created by Schawnn cells

73

Define Parkinson's

Idiopathic loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantial nigra

74

Define strabismus

Deviation of one eye when look at a specific object

75

Define encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain caused by viruses that can be carried by mosquitoes

76

Define amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Disease where a patient loses upper and lower motor neuron function

77

Define spastic paralysis

Rigidity that is characterized by the loss of upper motor neurons

78

Define Multiple Sclerosis

Autoimmune destruction of oligodendrocytes

79

Define epilepsy

Disease characterized by susceptibility to have seizures

80

Define spinal shock

Loss of function below a lesion in the spinal cord; function may or may not be returned