Flashcards in Exercise and febrile illnesses Deck (11):
What quantitative changes occur to the immune system during exercise?
1. Increase in neutrophils
2. Increase in lymphocytes
3. Decreased CD4:CD8 ratio
4. salivary IgA suppressed
What functional changes occur to the immune system during exercise?
1. Diminished neutrophil chemotaxis
2. Diminished phagocytosis
3. NK cell activity increases
What is the "open window"?
The period of reduced immune function after intense exercise
What is the relationship between amount of exercise and incidence of infection?
sedentary = average risk
moderate exercise = low risk
high exercise = high risk
What are the effects of fever?
1. Affects the body's ability to regulate body temperature
2. Increases insensible fluid losses
3. Increased risk of heat injury
4. increased risk of dehydration
5. decreased muscle strength
6. decreased endurance
7. reduced exercise tolerance
8. increased fatigue
What are the recommendations regarding athlete participating in competitive sports while unwell?
1. If symptoms are confined to above the neck the athlete may participate.
2. Do a 10-15min trial at mild-mod intensity and stop if symptoms worsen
3. If athletes have systemic symptoms (i.e. fever, myalgias, diarrhea) refrain from exercise x 7-14d post symptom resolution
What is the most important complication of infectious mononucleosis in athletes?
Splenic rupture (0.1-0.5% risk), highest in 1st 3 weeks of illness
What is the minimum disqualification period from athletics for patients with infectious mononucleosis?
Minimum 3 week disqualification in all patients
What criteria must be met to resume low-impact, non-contact training at 50% pre-illness level after the initial period of disqualification has completed?
1. Resolution of symptoms
2. Normalization of all laboratory markers
3. Resolution of splenomegaly (confirmed by US)
4. Resolution of any and all complications incld. fatigue, airway obstruction secondary to large tonsils and hepatitis
What are the recommendations for patients with infectious mononucleosis after the first week of graded return to activity?
If no relapse of symptoms they may be fully cleared to return to sport participation, incld. contact sports
If no US available consider late return to contact sports