Exploration/Absolutism Flashcards Preview

World History II > Exploration/Absolutism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exploration/Absolutism Deck (38):
1

Prince Henry

1419, founded an exploration school in Portugal.

2

encomienda

a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers.

3

Atlantic Slave Trade

the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas.

4

triangular trade

the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas.

5

Middle passage

the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies to be sold as slaves.

6

Columbian Exchange

the global transfer of plants, animals, and disease that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.

7

capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit. Take risks for big pay off.

8

mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.

9

favorable balance of trade

where a nation sold more goods than it bought.

10

joint-stock company

a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits.

11

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

An imaginary line that divided the territories between Spain and Portugal. West of the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain; Anything East would belong to Portugal.

12

conquistadors

the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.

13

Philip II

Ruled Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, Portugal, and the American Colonies.

14

Absolutism

political belief that one ruler should hold all of the power within the boundaries of a country.

15

Rembrandt van Rijn

Greatest Dutch artist. Painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and also group portraits.

16

Jan Vermeer

Dutch artist. Often painted women doing everyday work. Chose domestic indoor settings for his portraits.

17

Ivan the Terrible

the ruler of Russia 1533, won territories and gave Russia the code of law in his "good period." In his "bad period," he used his secret police to murder people he thought as traitors.

18

James I

First King of Scotland than went to England in 1603 and became ruler there. Had issue with parliament, struggled with money.

19

James II

1685 king of England. Devoted Catholic. He offended parliament and his people by displaying his Catholicism. Fled to France (was overthrown by his own daughter)

20

Restoration

The period of Charles II rule when he restored the monarchy after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government.

21

Junkers

Prussia's landowning nobility

22

Cardinal Richelieu

Minister during Louis XIII rule. Increased the Bourbon monarchy by weakening the nobles power and forbade Protestant cities to have walls.

23

Louis XIV

Most powerful ruler in French history. Devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance.

24

Thirty Years’ War

European conflict over religion and territory an for power among ruling families. 1618-1648

25

Maria Theresa

Charles VI oldest daughter that inherited the Austrian throne.

26

Frederick the Great

Frederick II. Encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. Believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people. Had a strong army

27

Prussia

a state to the north of Austria

28

Seven Years’ War

a conflict in Europe, NAmerica, and India in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battle those of Austria, Frances, Russia, and others.

29

Peace of Westphalia

A treaty that ended the Thirty Year's War.
-weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria
-strengthened France
-ended religious wars in Europe
-made German Princes independent of the Holy Roman Emperor
-introduced a new method of peace negotiation

30

Boyars

a landowning noble of Russia

31

Czar Peter the Great

ruled in 1696 in Russia, one of Russia's greatest reformer . He helped increase the czar's power. Westernized Europe. Believed that in order for Russia to succeed, it needed to have a warm-water port.

32

Oliver Cromwell

General who was recruited by the Puritans. His army defeated the Royalists and in 1645 they imprisoned the king.

33

Charles I

Charles I, son of James I. Always need more money because of the wars with France and Spain. Signed a petition made by Parliament in order to get more money but ignored the petition after agreeing to it.

34

English Civil War

a conflict, in which Puritans supporters of parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy (Royalists)

35

Glorious Revolution

the bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William and Mary

36

Charles II

Oldest son of Charles I. Restored the monarchy

37

Devine Right of King

The idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and therefore answerable only to God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm, including the Church. According to this doctrine, only God can judge an unjust king.

38

War of the Austrian Succession

A war between Prussia and Austria and other European Powers. Frederick II wanted the Austrian land of Silesia, which produced iron ore, textiles, and food products.