Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (21):
European intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government (monarchy).
Social contract: people and ruler, ruler must give the people life, liberty, and property; if ruler fails to give, then people can over throw. Favored the idea of self government. [Life liberty and property]; people could learn from experiences and improve themselves and could start over with a blank slate
Believed that people should hand over their rights to a strong ruler. Social contract: between people and ruler, but cannot overthrow the ruler. Thought humans were selfish and wicked.
Ideal government was absolute monarchy
"sea monster." Book life is nasty and brutish and short.
one of a group of social thinkers in France. People who were enlightened.
Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. "I might not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"
in favor of freedom of speech.
French writer. Believed in checks and balances [separation of powers: judicial, legislative, and executive.
The Spirit of the Laws
Written by Montesquieu. Proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining too much control
Philosophe. Believed in a direct democracy. All people were equal and that titles of nobility should be abolished. "Everyman is born free, but everywhere is in chains."
Wrote Gulliver's Travels. Article about eating babies.
Fought for women's educational rights. Didn't like Rousseau because he believed that women should be at home.
Didn't agree with torture and wanted an end to capital government. Thought prison should be reformed.
instill a sense of awe
Philosophe. Created the Encyclopedia.
a social gathering of intellects and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities.
A large set of books filled with articles and essays from many leading scholars.
formal, elegant style (based on the themes from Greece and Rome). Columns.
New type of classical music. Bach, Handel
frilly, dainty, playful style of art