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World History II > Enlightenment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enlightenment Deck (21):
1

Enlightenment

European intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.

2

social contract

the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government (monarchy).

3

John Locke

Social contract: people and ruler, ruler must give the people life, liberty, and property; if ruler fails to give, then people can over throw. Favored the idea of self government. [Life liberty and property]; people could learn from experiences and improve themselves and could start over with a blank slate

4

Thomas Hobbes

Believed that people should hand over their rights to a strong ruler. Social contract: between people and ruler, but cannot overthrow the ruler. Thought humans were selfish and wicked.
Ideal government was absolute monarchy

5

Leviathan

"sea monster." Book life is nasty and brutish and short.

6

philosophe

one of a group of social thinkers in France. People who were enlightened.

7

Voltaire

Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. "I might not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"
in favor of freedom of speech.

8

Montesquieu

French writer. Believed in checks and balances [separation of powers: judicial, legislative, and executive.

9

The Spirit of the Laws

Written by Montesquieu. Proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining too much control

10

Rousseau

Philosophe. Believed in a direct democracy. All people were equal and that titles of nobility should be abolished. "Everyman is born free, but everywhere is in chains."

11

Jonathan Swift

Wrote Gulliver's Travels. Article about eating babies.

12

Mary Wollstonecraft

Fought for women's educational rights. Didn't like Rousseau because he believed that women should be at home.

13

Cesare Beccaria

Didn't agree with torture and wanted an end to capital government. Thought prison should be reformed.

14

baroque

instill a sense of awe

15

Denis Diderot

Philosophe. Created the Encyclopedia.

16

salon

a social gathering of intellects and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities.

17

Encyclopedia

A large set of books filled with articles and essays from many leading scholars.

18

neoclassical

formal, elegant style (based on the themes from Greece and Rome). Columns.

19

symphony

New type of classical music. Bach, Handel

20

rococo

frilly, dainty, playful style of art

21

The Social Contract

Book written by Rousseau that explained his political philosophy that the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the "general will" of society.