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Flashcards in Eyewitness Testimony✅ Deck (31):
1

Eye witness testimony

An account given by people of an event they have witnessed

2

Causes of inaccuracies

Leading questions
Post event discussion
Anxiety

3

Who studied misleading information

Loftus and palmer

4

Who studied anxiety

Loftus

5

Who's studied cognitive interview

Geiselmann

6

Loftus and palmer procedure

45 students watched a film and then asked questions about what they had seen. All groups had the same question but the verb was changed to either smashed, bumped, or contacted.

7

Loftus and palmer findings

Found that the verb affected the speed estimates. Smashed had the highest and contacted had the lowest

8

Methodological issues with loftus and palmer

All participants were students so can't generalise to anyone else
Was in a lab so it's controlled and no external factors
Watched a film so can't generalise to life as they weren't at the scene

9

Ethical issues of loftus and palmer

Not protected from harm, psychological harm as the film was disturbing so they may have been traumatised and caused anxiety

10

Who supported loftus and palmer

Loftus and zanni

11

Loftus and zanni procedure

A week later the participants were questioned again, but asked if they seen broken glass

12

Findings of loftus and zanni

The people who had the smashed question previously were more likely to say they had seen broken glass than the people who answered the contacted question

13

Who studied anxiety effecting the accuracy of eye witness

Loftus, the weapon effect

14

Loftus's weapon effect study aim

To investigate the effect of anxiety and stress on eyewitness recall

15

Loftus's weapon effect procedure

There was two conditions, both groups say outside of lab listening to two different convos. One was a peaceful convo where a main come out with greasy hands. The other one was an aggressive violent convo where a man Came out with a bloody knife. Participants were shown 50 photos and asked to identify the man

16

The weapon effect findings

The people who listened to the violent scene were less accurate in identifying the man than the group who listened to the peaceful scene

17

Weapon effect conclusion

Loftus concluded that anxiety narrowed the attention of the witness and took attention to the bloody knife, so anxiety effects recall

18

Methodological issues with weapon effect

Lab experiment so it's controlled, no external factors so can establish cause and effect
However lacks ecological validity so can't generalise to real life

19

Ethical issues with weapon effect

Deception- were deceived into thinking they were real convos
Protection from harm- psychologically harmed as they showed anxiety

20

What study contradicts loftus's weapon effect

Christianson and hubinette

21

Christianson and hubinette procedure

Carried out a survey of 110 people who had witnessed between them 22 bank robberies. Some of these had been bystanders and others had been directly threatened by robbers

22

Findings of christianson and hubinette

People who been threatened and showed the most anxiety showed more detailed and accurate recall than out lookers

23

Conclusion of christianson and hubinette

They are contradicting loftus's study as it shows more anxiety results in better recall

24

Who studied cognitive interview

Geiselmann

25

Geiselmanns aim

Investigate the effectiveness of cognitive interview

26

Procedure of geiselmann's study

89 participants were shown police training films. Two days later they were interviewed by a police officer, using either cognitive interview, standard police interview or an interview using hypnosis. They were recorded and assessed on right or wrong answers

27

Findings of geiselmanns study

The cognitive interview had the most accurate recall

28

Conclusion of geiselmanns study

Showing that cognitive interview is the most effective way of recalling accurate information on events

29

Methodological issues of geiselmanns study

In a lab so,It's controlled no external factors and can establish cause and effect

30

Ethical issues of geiselmanns study

Protection from harm, weren't protected from psychological harm from the violent scenes may have caused anxiety or stress

31

Limitations of geiselmanns study

Cognitive interview has proven not very successful when interviewing children. He reviewed a number of studies and found children under 6 were less accurate in recalling events. Therefore this is probs because they find instructions more difficult to understand