Eyewitness Testimony✅ Flashcards Preview

Psychology paper 1 > Eyewitness Testimony✅ > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eyewitness Testimony✅ Deck (31):

Eye witness testimony

An account given by people of an event they have witnessed


Causes of inaccuracies

Leading questions
Post event discussion


Who studied misleading information

Loftus and palmer


Who studied anxiety



Who's studied cognitive interview



Loftus and palmer procedure

45 students watched a film and then asked questions about what they had seen. All groups had the same question but the verb was changed to either smashed, bumped, or contacted.


Loftus and palmer findings

Found that the verb affected the speed estimates. Smashed had the highest and contacted had the lowest


Methodological issues with loftus and palmer

All participants were students so can't generalise to anyone else
Was in a lab so it's controlled and no external factors
Watched a film so can't generalise to life as they weren't at the scene


Ethical issues of loftus and palmer

Not protected from harm, psychological harm as the film was disturbing so they may have been traumatised and caused anxiety


Who supported loftus and palmer

Loftus and zanni


Loftus and zanni procedure

A week later the participants were questioned again, but asked if they seen broken glass


Findings of loftus and zanni

The people who had the smashed question previously were more likely to say they had seen broken glass than the people who answered the contacted question


Who studied anxiety effecting the accuracy of eye witness

Loftus, the weapon effect


Loftus's weapon effect study aim

To investigate the effect of anxiety and stress on eyewitness recall


Loftus's weapon effect procedure

There was two conditions, both groups say outside of lab listening to two different convos. One was a peaceful convo where a main come out with greasy hands. The other one was an aggressive violent convo where a man Came out with a bloody knife. Participants were shown 50 photos and asked to identify the man


The weapon effect findings

The people who listened to the violent scene were less accurate in identifying the man than the group who listened to the peaceful scene


Weapon effect conclusion

Loftus concluded that anxiety narrowed the attention of the witness and took attention to the bloody knife, so anxiety effects recall


Methodological issues with weapon effect

Lab experiment so it's controlled, no external factors so can establish cause and effect
However lacks ecological validity so can't generalise to real life


Ethical issues with weapon effect

Deception- were deceived into thinking they were real convos
Protection from harm- psychologically harmed as they showed anxiety


What study contradicts loftus's weapon effect

Christianson and hubinette


Christianson and hubinette procedure

Carried out a survey of 110 people who had witnessed between them 22 bank robberies. Some of these had been bystanders and others had been directly threatened by robbers


Findings of christianson and hubinette

People who been threatened and showed the most anxiety showed more detailed and accurate recall than out lookers


Conclusion of christianson and hubinette

They are contradicting loftus's study as it shows more anxiety results in better recall


Who studied cognitive interview



Geiselmanns aim

Investigate the effectiveness of cognitive interview


Procedure of geiselmann's study

89 participants were shown police training films. Two days later they were interviewed by a police officer, using either cognitive interview, standard police interview or an interview using hypnosis. They were recorded and assessed on right or wrong answers


Findings of geiselmanns study

The cognitive interview had the most accurate recall


Conclusion of geiselmanns study

Showing that cognitive interview is the most effective way of recalling accurate information on events


Methodological issues of geiselmanns study

In a lab so,It's controlled no external factors and can establish cause and effect


Ethical issues of geiselmanns study

Protection from harm, weren't protected from psychological harm from the violent scenes may have caused anxiety or stress


Limitations of geiselmanns study

Cognitive interview has proven not very successful when interviewing children. He reviewed a number of studies and found children under 6 were less accurate in recalling events. Therefore this is probs because they find instructions more difficult to understand