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Flashcards in Research Methods- Conducting Research✅ Deck (36):
1

What are the Experimental designs

Repeated measures
Independent groups
Matched pairs

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Repeated measures

The same participants are used in both conditions

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Independent groups

Participants are randomly allocated to different groups which represent different conditions

4

Matched pairs

Pairs of participants are closely matched and are then randomly allocated to one of the experimental conditions

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Random sampling

Everyone in the target audience had an equal chance of being selected

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Opportunity sampling

Consists of those people available to the researcher at the time of carrying out the research

7

Volunteer sampling

Where the participant self-select, they volunteer themselves to take part

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Stratified sampling

Subgroups are identified and participants chosen randomly from each subgroup

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Systematic sampling

The researcher uses a pre-determined system to randomly select participant

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Random sampling advantages

Unbiased

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Random sampling disadvantages

Time consuming

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Opportunity sampling strengths

Easiest method less time consuming

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Opportunity sampling disadvantages

Biased
Not going to get a wider view

14

Volunteer sampling advantages

Less chance of drop out
Less time consuming
Les biased

15


Volunteer sampling disadvantages

May be biased in other ways as participants are likely to become motivated and/or extra time on their hands

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Stratified sampling strengths

More representative

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Stratified sampling disadvantages

Time consuming

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Systematic sampling advantages

Less chance of bias

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Systematic disadvantages

Not truly unbiased or random unless you select a number using random method

20

To types of validity

Internal and external validity

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Internal validity

If the outcome is a result of a variable

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External validity

The extent to which the results can be generalised to other settings

23

Two types of external validity

Population and ecological validity

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Population validity

If it can be generalised the population as a whole

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Ecological validity

If it can be generalised to real life

26

Reliability

How consistent the results are, if they can be repeated

27

Demand characteristics

Participant may pick up on ques from the environment which will make the participants change their behaviour, as they become aware of the aims

28

Investigator effects

When the investigator does something to effect/ influence a participants behaviour e.g tone of voice or facial expressions

29

Social desirability effects

Would be fake behaviour
Wanting to look good infront of researcher

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Single blind technique

The researcher knows the aim of the study but participants don't

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Double blind technique

Neither the researcher or the participant knows the aim

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What does the double blind technique help

eliminate investigator effects

33

Pilot study

A small scale study conducted on a small sample

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What does a pilot study help the researcher do?

Identify any potential problems with the analysis method design and instructions given to participants and so on

35

Main ethical issues

Deception
Informed consent
Protection from harm

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Other ethical issues

Right to withdraw, confidentiality, privacy