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Flashcards in Memory 1✅ Deck (53):
1

The multi store model of memory consists of

4 processes and 3 stores

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Stimulus input

Where the information is detected

3

Sensory memory/ register

Very large capacity
Duration of milliseconds
Multimodal encoding

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The four processes and the extra one

Stimulus input
Attention
Extra one- maintenance rehearsal
Transfer
Retrieval

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STM

Capacity 7+-2
Duration of up to 18 seconds
Acoustically encodes

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Maintenance rehearsal

If the information is rehearsed enough it will be remembered, a lot of repetition will create a ltm

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Transfer

Information that has been rehearsed enough to be remembered will be taken into ltm

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Ltm

Potentially unlimited capacity
Up to a life time of duration
Semantically encoding

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Retrieval process

Getting information from the Ltm back to the STM so it's available for use

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Advantage of multi store model of memory

HM
Clive wearing
Kf

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Disadvantages of multi store model of memory

Oversimplified
Flashbulb memory

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Who created working memory model

Baddeley and hitch

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What's the 4 main components of the working memory model

Central executive
Episodic buffer
Phonological loop
Visuo-spatial sketch pad

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Central executive

Main controller
It decides where the information goes, to either the episodic buffer, phonological loop or visuo-spatial sketch pad
When it's decided where it's going it diverts attention to that sub store

15

Episodic buffer

Is the general store
It's for things that use both visual and verbal information like watching telly

16

Phonological loop

Controls all auditory information. It's further subdivided into the acoustic store (inner ear) and articulatory store (inner voice). The acoustic store is for spoken words e.g listening to the radio. The articulatory store is for when you read a book

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Visuospatial sketchpad

Can also be known as the inner eye
It processes visual and spatial things (how things look and where they are) for example planning going home from college

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Advantages of working memory model

Supported by research such as KF

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Disadvantages of working memory model

Central executive is too vague and simplistic
Fails to take into account musical memory

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Types of ltm

Explicit and implicit

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Types of explicit memory

Episodic and semantic

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Type of implicit ltm

Procedural

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Episodic memory

Type of explicit memory
Available for conscious inspection
It's concerned with knowing that
And is responsible for storing specific, personal events and their context for example your 10th birthday

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Semantic memory

Type of explicit memory, it's available for conscious inspection and is concerned with knowing that
It's Responsible for storing general knowledge about the world for example pars is the capital of France

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Procedural memory

Is a type of implicit memory, it's not available for conscious inspection , is concerned with knowing how and is responsible for storing performance of actions and procedure of how to do things for example tying your shoe laces

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Advantages of types of ltm

Supported by tulving Brain scans
And supported by HM and Clive wearing

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Disadvantage of types of ltm

Lack of evidence to distinguish between episodic and semantic Ltm

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Forgetting

A persons loss of the ability to recall or recognise something they've previously learned

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Two explanations for forgetting

Interference theory and retrieval failure

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Interference theory

An explanation for forgetting in terms of one memory disrupting the ability to recall another. This is most likely to occur when the two memories have some similarity

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Types of interference

Retroactive and proactive

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Retroactive interference

New memories interfering with old ones
Current attempts to learn something interfere with past learning

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Proactive interference

New memories are hard to retrieve because of old memories interfering
Past learning interferes with learning new things

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Retrieval failure

Occurs due to lack of cues
An explanation for forgetting bass on the idea that the issue relates to being able to retrieve a memory that's there but not accessible. Retrieval depends on using cues

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Cues

Things that serve as a reminder

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Types of cues

External or internal

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External cues

If all the same cues are in the same place it's easier to retrieve information

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Internal cues

Cues that are linked to a persons state when encoding a memory. The best retrieval is when they are in the same state as they were when they were encoding

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Who researched retroactive interference

Müller

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Who researched proactive interference

Underwood

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Eyewitness Testimony

An account given by people of an event they've witnessed

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Causes of inaccuracies in eyewitness testimony

Post event discussion
Leading questions
Anxiety

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Misleading information

Information that can cause inaccuracies, and or things in your head

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Leading questions

A question phrased in such way as to prompt questionning your self

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Post event discussion

Talking about the event after it happens and forgetting some information or changing some ideas

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Who carried out the study investigating the factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (misleading information)

Loftus and palmer

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Who carried out the study investigating the factors affecting eyewitness testimony (anxiety) and what's it called

Loftus weapon effect

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Who investigated the effectiveness of cognitive interview on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony

Geiselmann

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Cognitive is based on 4 components

Context reinstatement
Report everything
Recall from changed perspective
Recall in reverse order

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Context reinstatement

Mentally reinstate the context of the incident , recall the scene and what were you thinking and feeling

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Report everything

Say everything that happened, every detail even if you think it's irrelevant

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Recall from changed perspective

Imagine the incident from someone else's viewpoint

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Recall in reverse order

Try reporting the incident in a different order