Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland (HIC Volcanic Case Study) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland (HIC Volcanic Case Study) Deck (12)
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Spatial and temporal distribution of event

April-May 2010 in S Iceland on Mid Atlantic Ridge


Location of Eyjafjallajokull

Constructive plate boundary (Eurasian & N American plates). Over a hotspot.


Magnitude of event

- VEI: 4
- Area distribution: Europe, Russia, Canada and Kazakhstan had ash in airspace


Why was the eruption more explosive than expected?

Magma heating overlying glacier. Water flowed into the erupting crater and cooled the lava. This added gas content and increased viscosity forming ash high in silica.


Why did it have such widespread impacts?

- Iceland is beneath a polar jet stream
- The jet stream was in a holding pattern blowing NW to SE over Europe
- Ash was very fine and travelled long distances


Local Impacts

- few lived in affected areas
- 80% of tephra fell on Iceland
- Livestock taken inside
- Evacuation of local population
- Local flooding from melted glacier
- Ash fall on Reykjavik airport causing closures
- Attracted further tourists to the area



- Low perception of risk
- IMO constant monitoring
- Frequency of eruption embankments directed flooding


European Impacts

- All flights cancelled
- Cost airlines £130 million per day
- Tourist destinations of stranded tourists had more business
- Europe lost $2.6 billion in GDP
- Slowed trade


Global Impacts

- 7 million passengers stranded worldwide
- 2.8 million tonnes less CO2 emitted
- Global travel slowed


Local Responses

- warnings given and local areas evacuated
- Roads breached to allow flood water movement and protect bridges
- Increased monitoring of nearby volcanoes


International Responses

Closure of most European airspace due to tephra concerns


Why did globalisation worsen impacts?

Increased global travel > more of an economic impact due to trade disruptions.