What goes into the cost of a case of mastitis?
- Milk discarded after treatment
- Reduction in milk yield
- Reduction in milk quality (SCC and Bactoscan)
- Antibiotic treatment
- Farm labour costs
- Veterinary costs
- Culling rates and/or deaths
What are the natural defences against mastitis?
Teat End Defences
- Teat skin
- Teat canal barrier
- Teat canal closure (takes up to 30 mins post-milking)
- Genetic factors
Intrinsic defence Mechanisms
- Lactoferrin (dry period)
Inducible Defence Mechanisms
- Inflammatory Response
Influence of Management
How do bacteria enter an udder?
Grown in - contagious pathogens
Forced/propelled in via milking machine, antibiotic tube, capillary action, surgical/cannula
What are the contagious pathogens that cause mastitis?
What are the environmental pathogens that cause mastitis?
Teasts and moulds
Why is Staph aureus so difficult to treat successfully?
- Poor antibiotic penetration
- Production of B-lactamase
- Persistence of bacteria within the cell
- Bacteria insensitive to antibiotic therapy
- Insufficient duration of therapy
When do most cows get mastitis from E. coli?
Infection during dry period
Why is pathognomonic of mastitis caused by mycoplasma?
Hard udder with water/sandy/thick secretions
What is mastitis from strep uberis associated with?
Straw yards and infection during the dry period
How do you determine clinical mastitis? subclincial?
Clinical - milk, udder, cow
Subclinical - Somatic cell count and bacteria
What are the effects of mastitis on milk constituents?
- Protein (including casein)
- Calcium, phosphorous
- Stability and keeping quality
- Taste deteriorates
- Plasmin (degrades casein)
- Lipase (degrades fat)
- Sodium, chloride, pH (make bitter)
How do you detect mastitis?
- Palpation of udder
- Systemic illness in cow
- In-line mastitis detectors
- Milk sock/filter
- Increases in milk conductivity
- Measurement of acute phase proteins in milk