Define Somatic Cell Counts (SCC).
Measurement of the number of cells in the milk. Specifically epithelial cells and white blood cells
How is SCC measured?
Automatic methods (fossomatic method)
California mastitis test (CMT)
Whiteside test (NaOH)
What are the different types of SCC?
Bulk milk SCC and Individual SCC
Why are SCC important?
- Financial penalties to farmer (premium for low and penalty for high)
- EU legislation
- Suitability for processing and storage
- Milk yield drops by 2.5% for every increase in SCC to 100,000
What are the factors that affect SCC?
- Clinical and subclinical mastitis
- Testing method
- AGe of cow
- Stage of lactation
- Seasonal and diurnal variation
- Milking frequency
- Stress and management
- Trauma to udder
Measurement of the total number of bacteria in the milk
Why is bactoscan important?
- Financial penalties to farmer (premium for low, penalty for high)
- Suitability for processing
- Reduction in shelf life
What are the sources of bacteria in milk?
- Mastitis pathogens from the udder
- Environmental contamination
- Diry milking plant
- Poor refrigeration of milk
Describe aseptic milk sampling technique.
Minimise contamination from commensal and environmental bacteria
- Wear gloves
- Clean teat end
- Collect sample
Describe best practice for sending samples to the lab.
Store at 4C until transported
Freezing of samples and send batch to lab
- May reduce quantity of gram neg bacteria
- Reduces costs
- Storage of samples until problem arises
What is the benefit of PCR testing of milk samples rather than sending them to a lab for bacteriology?
PCR detects presence of bacterial DNA in milk samples
- No need to take samples aseptically
- Uses preservative tablets, so no need to keep cold for transport to lab
- More sensitive for picking up bacteria
- More difficult to interpret and more expensive
Why is it important to treat cows with mastitis?
- Cow welfare
- Reduce recurrence and transmission
- Spontaneous cure rates for subclinical mastitis
- Economic if prevents culling of cows
How do you treat Grade 1 mastitis?
Intramammary antibiotic tubes alone
Herd Health Plan needs to state:
- Product to be used
- Length of treatment
- Milk withholding time
- Sampling for bacteriology
What is the price of an antibiotic failure penalty?
Antibiotic failure penalty = 1ppl for all milk
It is on YOU to tell the farmer the withholding time
What are the reasons for the failure of antibiotic therapy?
- Dealy in detection and initiation of treatment
- Establishment of chronic infections
- Constant reinfection
- Inappropriate antibiotic usage
- Duration of treatment too short
- Mastitis caused by organisms non-responsive to antibiotics
How do you treat Grade 2 mastitis?
Intramammary antibiotic tubes
Parentral antibiotic therapy
What are some good clinical signs of coliform mastitis?
Hard, hot swollen quarter
Serum-coloured watery secretions
How do you treat coliform mastitis?
Fluid therapy to correct the circulating blood volume to increase cardiac output and increase tissue perfusion
- Oral fluids
- 10-15L IV isotonic fluids
- 3L saline then 40L water orally
NSAIDS to counteract the effects of endotoxaemia, reduce pain (improve welfare), improve demeanour, reduce pyrexia
Antibiotics against involvement of other pathogen/secondary bacteria, prevent bacteraemia,
- Use broadspectrum
Quarter stripping and oxytocin to remove inflammatory products from the udder
Other supportive therapy: IV Calcium borogluconate, Multivitamin injections, IV glucose/dextrose