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Flashcards in Face Deck (84):
1

What are the names of the 2 sections that the bones of the skull can be divided into?

Neurocranium (TOPF, ethmoid, sphenoid) and viscerocranium (face)

2

What do all mm. of facial expression insert onto?
What is their common motor innervation?

- The skin of the face
- Branches of the Facial n. (CN VII)

3

Frontal belly of frontalis m: I & A?

- Temporal branches of facial n.
- Wrinkles forehead

4

Obicularis oculi m: I & A?

- Facial n. (CN VII)
- Closes eyelids

5

Procerus m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Draws down medial angle of eyebrows, produces transverse wrinkles over bridge of nose and "frowns" forehead

6

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Elevates upper lip and dilates nostril, raises angle of mouth, elevates upper lip laterally

7

Nasalis m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Draws ala of nose toward septum. Opens and closes nostrils , particularly in forced respiration

8

Levator labii superioris m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Elevates and everts upper lip

9

Zygomaticus minor m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Elevates upper lip

10

Zygomaticus major m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Draws angle of mouth backwards and upwards

11

Orbicularis oris m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Compression, contractions, and protrusion of lips

12

Depressor labii inferioris m: I & A?
Where is it w/respect to depressor anguli oris m?

- Facial n.
- Depresses lower lip and draws it laterally
- Medial and (I think ) deep

13

Mentalis m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Raises and protrudes lower lip

14

Depressor anguli oris m: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Depresses angle of mouth

15

Risorius m: I & A?
Where is it in respect to the buccinator m?

- Facial n.
- Retracts angle of mouth
- Sits on top of buccinator m.

16

Platysma: I & A?

- Facial n.
- Tenses skin of neck

17

Corrugator supercilii m: I & A?

(Deep)
- Facial n.
- Draws eyebrows downward and medially, produces wrinkles in frowning

18

Occipitalis belly, occipitofrontalis m: I & A?

(Deep)
- Facial n.
- Moves scalp backwards

19

Buccinator m: I & A?

(Deep)
- Facial n.
- Compresses cheek, expels air b/w lips, aids in mastication

20

Levator anguli oris m: I & A?

(Deep)
- Facial n.
- Elevates angle of mouth
* It's deep to all the mm. around it

21

Sensory innervation of the face is done by what nerve?

Trigeminal n. (CN V)

22

The facial n. exits the skull via what hole? What does it pierce?

Stylomastoid foramen, piercing parotid gland

23

What are the 5 major branches of the facial n.?

Ten Zebras Bashed My Car (top -> bottom)
1. Temporal
2. Zygomatic
3. Buccal
4. Marginal/Mandibular
5. Cervical

24

Palsy to cranial nerve VII causes what disorder?

Bell's Palsy (unilateral facial paralysis)

25

What are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve?

Ophthalmic division (V1)
Maxillary division (V2)
Mandibular division (V3)

26

What are the branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal n? (V1)

"LaSSIE"
La: lacrimal
S: Supraorbital
S: Supratrochlear
I: Infratrochlear
E: External nasal

27

What are the branches of the maxillary division of the trigeminal n? (V2)

"IZZ" (check this)
Infraorbital
Zygomatic temporal
Zygomaticofacial

28

What are the branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal n? (V3)

"A BML" (check this)
Auriculotemporal
Buccal
Mental
Lingual

29

The parotid gland is innervated by parasympathic fibers of what nerve, which then synapses w/what ganglion?

- Glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
- Otic ganglion

30

The glossopharyngeal n. travels w/what n. as it passes thru the parotid gland?

Auriculotemporal n. (mandibular branch of V3)

31

Name the duct that comes from the parotid gland.

Stenson's duct (AKA parotid duct)

32

What is the main artery that supplies the lower face and what do they branch from?

- Facial a.
- External carotid a.

33

What 2 aa. emerge above the eye w/ nn. of the same name, and what do they branch from?

- Supraorbital a. and supratrochlea a.
- Internal carotid a.

34

What a. supplies that lateral side of the face that branches from the ECA?

- Superficial temporal a.

35

What is the major venous sinus of the face?

Cavernous sinus

36

What is important regarding the "danger triangular"?

Infection to facial vein can be serious.
Can spread to its interconnections (ophthalmic and intraorbital vv.) to the pterygoid plexus and into the cavernous sinus.
Can reach brain and cause meningitis and encephalitis.

37

Explain the layers of the scalp

SCALP
S: Skin
C: CT (dense)
A: Aponeurosis
L: Loose CT
P: Pericranium

38

What lies at the junction of parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and frontal bones? What runs deep to it and is vulnerable to rupture?

- Pterion
- Middle meningeal artery

39

What is the marking located on the medial superior border of the infratemporal fossa?
What bones make it up?

Infratemporal crest (greater wing of sphenoid --> temporal bone)

40

What bones form the roof (superomedially) of the infratemporal fossa?
What is contained here?

- Inferior surface of greater wing of sphenoid + temporal bones
- Foramen ovale (V3), foramen spinosum (middle meningeal a.), petrotympanic fissure (chorda tympani n.)

41

What bones form the anterior wall of the infratemporal fossa?
What is contained here?

- Posterior maxilla and pyramidal process of palatine bone
- Alveolar foramen and infra-orbital fissure

42

What bones form the lateral wall of the infratemporal fossa?
What is contained here?

- Medial ramus of mandible
- Opening to the mandibular canal

43

What bones form the medial wall of the infratemporal fossa?
What is contained here?

- Lateral plate of pterygoid process (ant), pharynx + 2 small mm. of the soft palate called tensor and levator veli palatini mm. (post)
- Pterygomaxillary fissure, sphenopalatine foramen

44

What marks the anterior limit of TMJ?

Articular tubercle of temporal bone

45

What receives head of mandible to create the TMJ?

Mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

46

What's the posterior limit of TMJ?

Postglenoid tubercle of temporal bone

47

What's important about the condyloid process of the mandible?

Its head and neck articules w/mandibular fossa

48

What's at the superior anterior portion of the mandible?

Coronoid process

49

What lies b/w the condyloid and coronoid processes of the mandible?

Mandibular notch

50

Where is the pterygomaxillary fissure?

B/w pterygoid plate and maxilla (medial boundary of infratemporal fossa)

51

What runs thru the foramen ovale?

V3 and accessory meningeal a.

52

What runs thru the foramen spinosum?

Middle meningeal a. and recurrent meningeal n.

53

Where is the foramen spinosum?

Near the spine of the sphenoid

54

The temporal fossa communicates w/the infratemporal fossa thru the _______.

Zygomatic arch

55

The infratemporal fossa communicates w/the orbit thru the ________ and the pterygopalatime fossa thru the _________.

- Inferior orbital fissure
- Pterygomaxillary fissure

56

The pterygopalatine fossa communicates with the the nasal cavity by the ____________.

Sphenopalatine foramen

57

What are the contents of the infratemporal fossa?

Inferior temporalis m.
medial and lateral pterygoid mm.
TMJ
Maxillary a. and it's 3 branches
CN V3 (mandibular division of trigeminal n.)
Chorda tympani (sensory and motor of CN VII)
Branches of glossopharyngeal n. (CN IX)
(so branches of 5, 7, 9)
Otic ganglion (parasymps for parotid gland from CN IX)

58

What comprise the mm. of mastication?
What are they innervated by?

- Medial and lateral pterygoid mm. + masseter m.
- V3 (mandibular n.)

59

Protraction of the jaw is mostly performed by what muscle?

Lateral pterygoid m. is most important
(assisted by medial pterygoid, masseter mm.)

60

Retraction of the jaw is mostly performed by what muscles?

Temporalis and masseter mm.

61

Elevation of the jaw is mostly performed by what muscles?

Temporalis, masseter, and medial pterygoid mm.

62

Depression of the jaw is mostly performed by what muscle?

Trick, it's mostly gravity.
- Also lateral pterygoid, ant belly digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and infrahyoid mm.

63

Lateral displacement of the jaw is performed by what muscles?

Ipsilateral masseter and temporalis, contralateral medial and lateral pterygoids.

64

What is the articular disc of the TMJ made of?

Dense irregular CT (unusual)

65

What are the 5 main components of the TMJ?

Articular tubercle (of temporal bone)
Mandibular fossa
Condyle of the mandible (head and neck)
Articular disc
Postglenoid tubercle

66

What is the function of the articular disc in the TMJ?

Divides joint into sup and inf compartments

67

In the TMJ, the 1st movement is done in the ________ compartment, and the 2nd is done in the ________ compartment

Lower (hinge movement), Upper (sliding/gliding; articular disc moves w/head of mandible)

68

What m. divides the maxillary artery? What divisions does it make?

- Lateral pterygoid m.
- Mandibular part, pterygoid part, and pterygopalatine part

69

What are the branches of the maxillary artery?

MI DB IPS (mandibular part, pterygoid part, pterygopalatine part)
Middle meningeal a.
Inferior alveolar a.
Deep temporal aa.
Buccal a.
Infraorbital a.
Posterior superior alveolar a.
Sphenopalatine a.

70

V3 (mandibular division of CN V) passes thru what hole ot get to the middle cranial fossa?

foramen ovale

71

The anterior branch of V3 is primarily ________ and the posterior branch of V3 is primarily ________.

Motor, sensory

72

What nerves branch from the anterior branch of V3?

- Motor -
Buccal n. (this is except cuz it does sensory to cheek/oral cavity)
Anterior and posterior deep temporal nn.
Nerve to lateral pterygoid m.
Nerve to masseter m.

73

What nerves branch from the posterior branch of V3?

- Sensory -
Auriculotemporal n.
Lingual n.
Inferior alveolar n.

74

What does the auriculotemporal n. innervate?

Sensory to anterior ear and temporal region

75

What are special characteristics of the auriculotemporal n.?

1. Lesser petrosal n. (preganglionic parasympathetic) is derived from the glossopharyngeal n. and runs to the otic ganglion where it synapses. The postganglionic fibers leaving the otic ganglion will run w/the auriculotemporal n. to supply secretomotor fibors to the parotid gland.

2. Splits to encircle the middle meningeal a. and then reunites to continue course to front of ear

76

What does the lingual n. innervate?

General sensory to anterior 2/3 tongue (pain, temp, touch)

77

What is a special characteristic of the lingual n.?

Receives the chorda tympani n. (CN VII, gives it a ride)

78

What does the chorda tympani supply?

- Special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers for taste from ant 2/3 tongue
- Also carries preganglionic parasympathetics (GVE) which run to the submandibular ganglion (adjacent to the gland)

79

What do postganglionic fibers from the submandibular ganglion innervate?

Secretomotor innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands

80

What does the inferior alveolar n. pass thru and supply?

- Passes through mandibular foramen to enter mandibular canal
- Sensory innervation to mandibular teeth
- Continues anteriorly to exit mental foramen and become the mental n.

81

What gives off the n. to the mylohyoid?

Inferior alveolar n. (prior to entering mandible)

82

What does nerve to the mylohyoid innervate?

Anterior belly of digastric and mylohyoid mm.

83

In the head, there are no lymph nodes above the _______.

Ear

84

What are the sensory nn. of V3?

BAIL:
Buccal n. (anterior exception)
Auriculotemporal n.
Inferior alveolar n.
Lingual n.