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Flashcards in Orbit Deck (66):
1

What bones make up the outer rim of the orbit?

Frontal, zygomatic, and maxilla bones

2

What bones make up the inner part of the orbit?

Sphenoid (greater & lesser wings), ethmoid, lacrimal, and palatine bones

3

What bones makeup the floor of the orbit?

Maxilla, zygomatic, palatine bones

4

What bones makeup the roof of the orbit?

Frontal, sphenoid bones

5

What bones makeup the medial wall of the orbit?

Ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal, maxillary, palatine bones

6

What bones makeup the lateral wall of the orbit?

Zygomatic, sphenoid, frontal, maxilla bones

7

What lies at the apex of the orbit?

Optic canal

8

What makes up the base of the orbit?

Orbital margin

9

What is the axis of the orbit?

45 degrees from sagittal

10

What is the name for the space b/w the upper and lower eyelids?

Pelpebral fissure, bound by the upper and lower palpebral margins (palpebrae = eyelids)

11

The upper and lower palpabral margins meet at the ___________.

Canthus (medial and lateral canthi)

12

How many layers does a palpebra have associated w/it?

7

13

What is the major m. of the eyelid?

Levator palpabrae superioris m.

14

What is the lacrimal lake?

The larger medial angle of the eyelid

15

What is the fleshy elevation seen in the medial eye (next to the lake)?
What's contained in it?

- Lacrimal caruncle
- Sweat glands, sebaceous glands, cilia

16

What is the name of the CT band found just lateral to the lacrimal caruncle?

Plica semilunaris (separates sclera from lacrimal lake)

17

Where are lacrimal glands located?
What do the ducts of the lacrimal gland drain directly into?

- Superolateral aspect of eye
- Superior palpebral fornix (of upper lid. aided by blinking)

18

What is the function of the puncta lacrimali?
Where are they located?

- Drain opening for the tears
- Medial side of upper and lower lid

19

What is the function of the lacrimal canaliculus?
Where are they located?

- It's a duct from the puncta lacrimali to the lacrimal sac
- Upper and lower palpebrae

20

What is the lacrimal sac?
Where is it located?

- Collection of fluids
- Fossa of lacrimal bone

21

Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain?

Nasal sinus

22

What do the recti mm. originate?

Anulus tendineus (fibrous ring encircling inf and sup orbital fissures + optic canal)
- Placed medially, so mm. travel laterally and anteriorly to reach eye

23

Where does the superior oblique m. originate?

Sphenoid

24

Where does the inferior oblique m. originate?

Maxilla

25

Where does the levator palpebrae superioris m. originate?

Sphenoid

26

What are the vertical axis actions of each of the 6 eye mm.?

Medial rectus: none
Lateral rectus: none
Superior rectus: elevates
Inferior rectus: depresses
Superior oblique: depresses
Inferior oblique: elevates

27

What are the horizontal axis actions of each of the 6 eye mm.?

Medial rectus: adducts
Lateral rectus: abducts
Superior rectus: adducts
Inferior rectus: adducts
Superior oblique: abducts
Inferior oblique: abducts

28

What does the superior division of the oculomotor n. innervate?

Superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris mm.

29

What does the inferior division of the oculomotor n. innervate?

Medial and inferior recti, inferior oblique mm.

30

Besides the optic n., what travels through the optic canal?

Ophthalmic a.

31

What are the 3 primary branches that V1 divides into?

"NFL"
- Nasociliary n.
- Frontal n.--> Supratrochlear and supraorbital nn.
- Lacrimal n.

32

What is the pw of the nasociliary n. across the eye? What branches does it give off (just kind of know them)

- Lateral to medial
- Short ciliary nn., long ciliary nn., posterior ethmoidal n., anterior ethmoidal n., infratrochlear n.

33

How does the communicating branch of the ciliary ganglion reach the eye?

Runs thru the ciliary ganglion w/o synapsing, then reaches eye by running w/short ciliary nn.

34

What are the only types of fibers that synapse w/ciliary ganglion?
What other fibers run directly thru it?

- Parasymp fibers from CN III
- Sensory and symp fibers

35

What m. causes constriction of the pupil via parasympathetic stimulation?

Sphincter pupillae m.

36

What m. causes allows eye to focus on nearby objects via parasympathetic stimulation?

Ciliary m. contraction

37

After passing thru ciliary ganglion, how to sympathetic fibers enter the eye?
What m. do they innervate and what's its function?

- Short and long ciliary nn.
- Dilator pupillae mm. --> dilate pupil

38

What are the 7 branches of the ophthalmic a. that Dr. Frystak cares about?

Lacrimal (taggable)
Central retinal
Long and short ciliary (choroidal)
Supraorbital (taggable)
Anterior ethmoidal
Posterior ethmoidal
Supratrochlear

39

What veins drain the orbit?
What hole do they pass thru?
Where do they drain to?

- Superior and inferior ophthalmic vv.
- Superior orbital fissure
- Cavernous sinus

40

What are the 3 layers of the eye, outside to inside?

Schlera, choroid, retina

41

What are responsible for the production of the eye's aqueous humor?

Ciliary processes (in the ciliary body).
- Distributed to ant and post compartments

42

What attaches the ciliary body to the lens?

Zonular fibers

43

What is the cause of Glaucoma?

Increasing IOP (intraocular pressure). Aqueous humor drainage is less than its production (produced in ciliary body)
- Compresses retina, optic n., BV's
- Caused be decreased outflow thru canal of schlemm or increased production in aqueous humor
- Can dmg retina, painful, eventually can cause blindness
- Sx: blurred vision, halos around bright objects

44

Where is the constrictor pupillae m. located?

Pupillary aspect of the eye, circumferentially. (parasymp)

45

Where is the dilator pupillae m. located?

Deep to constrictor pupillae, oriented radially. (symp)

46

Where is the vitreous body contained?

Postremal chamber

47

What are the functional layers of cells in the retina, in the order that light hits them?

1. Ganglion cells (cell bodies, pass to optic n.)
2. Interneurons and bipolar cells
3. Photoreceptors (lie adjacent to pigmented epithelium)

48

What are Muller cells, basically?

Supporting cells of the retina

49

Do rods or cones have higher amplification?

Rods

50

Which has higher temporal resolution, rods or cones?

Cones

51

Which take more light to saturate, cones or rods?

Cones

52

Which have more pw convergence (lower acuity), rods or cones?

Rods

53

Describe what's present at the fovea.

Avascular zone consisting mainly of just a cone layer.

54

Where does the optic n. leave the sclera?

Lamina cribrosa (of the sclera)

55

What is the name of the retina overlying the lamina cribrosa?

Optic papilla/optic disc/blind spot

56

Where do the central a. and v. of the retina run thru?

Center of the optic n.

57

Where does the central v. of the retina normally drain to?

Cavernous sinus

58

Do the oblique mm. insert on the medial or lateral side of the eyeball?

Lateral

59

What does the outer-most layer of the retina consist of? (resting on the choroid)

Pigmented epithelial cells

60

What forms the blood-retinal barrier?

Tight junctions b/w Muller cells (of the retina)

61

What is responsible for the yellow and white secretion sometimes found in the eye upon arising after a night's sleep?

The lacrimal caruncle (contains the sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and cilia)

62

What accounts for the "sniffling" which is necessary to keep the draining tears within the nasal cavity during crying.

Anterior drainage of the nasolacrimal duct
- "overflow" from the ductal system

63

Describe the pathway of tears from the lacrimal gland.

Lacrimal gland (ducts-->)
Superior palpebral fornix -->
Puncta lacrimali (drain opening, sup and inf medially) -->
Lacrimal canaliculus (sup and inf) -->
Lacrimal sac (fossa of lacrimal bone) -->
Nasolacrimal duct --> nasal sinus

64

What is the flow of aqueous humor? What does it go through?

Post --> ant
- goes thru pupil

65

What are the major nn. found in the orbit?

- CN II

- CN III
- CN IV
- CN V-1
- CN VI
(all travel through SOF)

- Sympathetics & parasympathetics

66

What types of information do short ciliary nn. carry to the eye?

- Postganglionic symp
- Postganglionic parasymp
- General sensory (afferent) fibers