Flashcards in Autonomics Deck (51)
Where on the sc do sympathetics originate from?
Where on the sc do parasympathetics originate from?
Mostly CN's of brain stem, some in S2-S4
What CN's give off parasympathetic function (GVE)?
III, VII, IX, X
Once a sympathetic nerve exits its ganglion it becomes part of a ____________ nerve.
Sympathetic cell bodies originate from the _____________ of the sc.
Lateral horn (interomediallateral nucleus, IML).
Name the sympathetic ganglion superior to T1.
Superior, medial, and inferior cervical ganglion.
A sympathetic ganglion outside of the sympathetic trunk is called a __________________.
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the sc via the ________ root.
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and ________. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers are ________ and ________.
- short, myelinated (white)
- long, unmyelinated (gray)
Which NS is responsible for vasomotor tone?
Parasympathetic nn. synapse at __________ ganglia. Where are these ganglia located?
- peripheral (ganglia)
- near target organ
Most sympathetic nn. synapse at __________ ganglia. Where are these ganglia located?
- Chain or collateral ganglia (others are the adrenal medullae)
- Located near spinal cord
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are ________ and ________. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers are ________ and ________.
- long, myelinated
- short, unmyelinated
What is the NT for sympathetic preganglionic synapses? Postganglionic synapses?
What is the NT for parasympathetic preganglionic synapses? Postganglionic synapses?
The postganglionic neurons for sphlanchnic nn. synapse at what neuronal structures?
The postganglionic neurons for sphlanchnic nn. T5-T9 are associated w/what ganglion? What is the important n. that comes from here?
- Celiac ganglion
- Greater splanchnic n.
The postganglionic neurons for sphlanchnic nn. T9-T10 are associated w/what ganglion?
Inferior mesenteric ganglion
What is the sympathetic effect of renin secretion in the kidneys?
Are pelvic splanchnic nn. parasymp or symp? What about sacral splanchnics?
- Parasympathetic (they are the exception). "P"
- Sympathetic ("S")
What is unusual about sympathetic splanchnic nn?
Their ganglion are closer to target organ.
What do sympathetic nn. use to find their targets?
Blood vessels and peripheral nn.
What NT increases HR?
What are the 3 key symptoms of cranial sympathetic nerve stimulation?
Sweating on face, dilator pupillae, tarsal m. of eyelid.
What is Horner's syndrome?
What are the 3 signs?
Interruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic pathway (to the face)
- Miosis (excessive pupil contriction)
- Ptosis (eyelid drooping ~30%)
- Anhidrosis (lack of sweating)
- Unilateral facial redness (No symp, no vasoconstriction)
How does parasymp innervation affect the pupil size and lens?
Smaller pupil, rounder lens
Someone w/sign's of Horner's syndrome w/upper extremity pain and smoke tobacco could possibly have _____________.
What are the parasympathetic nuclei of CN's III, VII, IX, and X?
CPOS (COPS almost)
Thoracic, abdominal, and cardiac ganglia (10)
Which parasympathetic nerve helps you pee, poop, and point (your penis)?
Pelvic splanchnic n.
CN associated w/ciliary ganglion? Location?
- CN III
- Lateral to optic n.
CN associated w/pterygopalatine ganglion? Location?
- CN VII
- In pterygopalatine fossa
CN associated w/submandibular ganglion? Location?
- CN VII
- On hyoglossus
CN associated w/otic ganglion? Location?
- CN IX
- Below foramen ovale
What are the parasympathetic fibers of ciliary ganglion?
Oculomotor n. to its inferior division.
What are the parasympathetic fibers of pterygopalatine ganglion?
Facial n. --> greater petrosal n. --> (Vidian's) nerve of pterygoid canal.
What are the parasympathetic fibers of submandibular ganglion?
Facial n. --> corda tympani (rides lingual n. to target)
What are the parasympathetic fibers of otic ganglion?
Glossopharyngeal n., its tympanic branch, lesser petrosal n.
Chief distribution of ciliary ganglion?
- Parasymp: Ciliary m. (accomodation, focussing) and sphincter pupillae (miosis, constriction)
- Symp: dilator pipillae and tarsal m. of Muller
Chief distribution of pterygopalatine ganglion?
Lacrimal glands, glands of the palate and nose
Chief distribution of submandibular ganglion?
Submandibular and sublingual glands
Chief distribution of otic ganglion?
What do the parasympathetic nerves of CN III get a ride from on the way to the eye.
- CN V1 (synapses at ciliary ganglion)
What is the parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?
CN VII --> Greater petrosal n. --> pterygopalatine ganglion --> lacrimal gland
What is the parasympathetic pathway to the submandibular and sublingual glands?
CN VII --> chorda tympani --> submandibular ganglion --> submandibular/sublingual glands
What 2 nn. join to become Vidian's n. of the pterygoid canal?
Where do they synapse?
- Greater petrosal and deep petrosal nn.
- Pterygopalatine ganglion
What gives the chorda tympani (of CN VII) a ride to the submandibular ganglion?
- Lingual n. of CN V3
What gives a ride to CN VII to the lacrimal gland (for crying)?
- Zygomatic branch of CN V2
("don't cry, you'll wet your zygomatic arch")
Explain the parasympathetic pathway to the parotid gland.
- Glossopharyngeal n.
- Lesser petrosal n.
- Otic ganglion
- Auriculotemporal n.
- Parotid gland
What gives a ride to the glossopharyngeal n. towards its target parotid gland?
Auriculotemporal n. of CN V3
What parasympathetics innervate the cock and balls?
S2, S3, S4 (keep the junk off the floor)