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Flashcards in Anterior Neck Deck (44)
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Which cartilages inferior to the hyoid bone are "true rings" and which are "V-shaped"?

- Thyroid cartilage: V-shaped
- Cricoid cartilage: True ring


What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

- Anterior: anterior median line
- Posterior: SCM
- Superior: inferior border of mandible

- Apex: jugular notch
- Roof: Sub-Q fascia & platysma
- Floor: pharynx, larynx, thyroid gland (covered by pretrachial fascia)


Mylohyoid m: OIIA?

Origin: mylohyoid line of mandible
Insertion: Medial raphe and body of mandible

Innervation: Nerve to the mylyhyoid of V3 (also innervates ant belly of digastric)
Action: Elevates hyoid bone, base of tongue, floor of mouth; depresses mandible


Digastric m: OIIA?

Origin: Ant-digastric fossa of mandible; post-mastoid notch of temporal bone
Insertion: Intermediate tendon attached to body of hyoid

Innervation: Ant-nerve to mylohyoid (CN V3); post-Facial n. (CN VII)
Action: Stablizes, raises, anterior movement (ant belly) and posterior movement (post belly) of the hyoid


Geniohyoid m: OIIA?

Origin: Genial tubercle of mandible
Insertion: Hyoid bone (deep to mylohyoid)

Innervation: Nerve to geniohyoid (C1, runs w/hypoglossal CN XII)
Action: Raises hyoid bone, depresses mandible


Stylohyoid m: OIIA?

Origin: Styloid process
Insertion: Hyoid bone

Innervation: Facial n. (CN VII)
Action: Elevates hyoid b. and base of tongue


Sternohyoid m: OIIA?

Origin: Posterior aspect of manubrium (of sternum)
Insertion: Hyoid

Innervation: Ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
Action: Depresses larynx and hyoid bone, steadies hyoid bone (during vocalization & depression of mandible)


Sternothyroid m: OIIA?

Origin: Manubrium (posterior to sternohyoid)
Insertion: Thyroid cartilage (oblique line)

Innervation: Ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
Action: Depresses larynx and thyroid cartilage (stabilizes it during vocalization and depression of mandible)


Thyrohyoid m: OIIA?

Origin: Thyroid cartilage (oblique line)
Insertion: Hyoid bone

Innervation: Nerve to the thyrohyoid (C1, travels w/hypoglossal CN XII)
Action: Depresses larynx and hyoid bone, elevates thyroid cartilage (stabilizes both during vocalization)


Omohyoid m: OIIA? (sup and inf bellies)

Origin: Superior border of scapula (near scapular notch)
Insertion: Hyoid bone (jcn of body and greater horn)

Innervation: Innervation: Ansa cervicalis (C1-C3)
Action: Depresses hyoid bone and may stabilize it from below


What 2 mm. appear as 1 going from the manubrium to the hyoid b. but actually start and stop at the thyroid cartilage?

Sternothyroid m. --> Thyrohyoid m.
(different innervations)


The hyoid bone aids mainly in what 3 actions?

Tongue movement, vocalization, swallowing


During swallowing, infrahyoid mm. ___________ while suprahyoid mm. ___________.

Relax (infrahyoids); Contract (suprahyoids)


What are the 5 major contents of the submandibular triangle?

Submandibular gland
Submandibular lymph nodes
Mylohyoid n. (V3)
Facial a.
Lingual n. (can't see it)
Hypoglossal n. (CN XII)


What are the 3 branches of the aortic arch?

1. Brachiocephalic Trunk
2. Left Common Carotid a.
3. Left Subclavian a.


What does the brachiocephalic trunk branch into?

Right common carotid a. and right subclavian a.


The common carotid a. divides into:

Internal and external carotid aa. (enters skull via carotid foramen)


Which major a. is responsible for supplying the face and neck, both superficial and deep?

External carotid a.


Recall: what 3 things are in the carotid sheath?

Vagus n.
Common carotid a.


Name the branches of the external carotid a:

SALFOP Super-T Max
1. Superior thyroid a.
2. Ascending pharyngeal a.
3. Lingual a.
4. Facial a.
5. Occipital a.
6. Posterior auricular a.
7. Superficial temporal a. (gives off transverse facial a.)
8. Maxillary a.


(not sure about this image)
What runs next to the vagus n. to provide a type of innervation about the external carotid a.?

Sympathetic trunk (from cervical ganglia)


What m. divides the subclavian a. into 3 sections?

Anterior scalene m.


Vertebral a. runs through what part of the vertebrae?

Foramen transversarium


Subclavian v. runs behind __________ and in front of the ___________.

Clavicle; anterior scalene


Subclavian a. and brachial plexus run b/w _______ & ________.

Anterior scalene and middle scalene.


Important structures near the superior thoracic apertures include: (Don't memorize)

1. Thoracic duct
2. Vagus n.
3. Phrenic n.
4. Sympathetic chain
5. Recurrent laryngeal n.
6. Subclavian aa. and vv. (and their branches)
7. Common carotid aa.
8. Apices of lt and rt lungs (and their pleura)


What 5 branches does the vagus n. give off in the neck? (Which 2 are most important?)

1. Pharyngeal branch (motor)
2. Superior laryngeal n.
3. N. to the carotid body (sensory)
4. Cardiac nerves (parasympathetic)
5. Recurrent laryngeal n.
(2 & 5 most important)


What are the 2 branches of the superior laryngeal n (branch of vagus n)?

1. Internal laryngeal n.--*pierces thyrohyid membrane; sensory to larnyx above true vocal folds
2. External laryngeal n.--supplies cricothyroid m. (motor)


What are the 2 branches of the recurrent laryngeal n (branch of vagus n)?

1. Right recurrent laryngeal n.--loops around the subclavian a. (ant --> post), runs in tracho-esophageal groove, provides motor to all vocalization mm. except cricothyroid (external laryngeal n. does that)
2. Left recurrent laryngeal n.--wraps around aortic arch


What are the usual 3 cervical sympathetic ganglion in the T and L spinal cord? (numbers may vary)

1. *Superior (C1-C4)
2. Middle (C5-C6)-may be absent
3. Inferior (C7-C8)