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Flashcards in Face Deck (25):
1

Facial muscles
- located in the _______________ tissue of the anterior and posterior scalp, face, and neck
- move the skin and change facial expressions; most muscles are attached to bone or fascia and produce their effects by pulling the skin
- develop from __________(germ layer) in the ______ pharyngeal arches

Facial muscles
- located in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior and posterior scalp, face, and neck
- move the skin and change facial expressions; most muscles are attached to bone or fascia or fascia and produce their effects by pulling the skin
- develop from mesoderm in the 2nd pharyngeal arches

2

Facial lacerations tend to gape because the face has no __________ and because the _______________ tissue between the cutaneous attachments of the muscles is loose.
Looseness of the subcutaneous tissue enables fluid and blood to accumulate following bruising.

Facial lacerations tend to gape because the face has no deep fascia and because the subcutaneous tissue between the cutaneous attachments of the muscles is loose.
Looseness of the subcutaneous tissue enables fluid and blood to accumulate following bruising.

3

MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
Smiling muscle -
Grinning muscle -
Blowing/sucking/trumpeter's muscle -
Chin muscle -
Kissing muscle -

MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
Smiling muscle - Zygomaticus
Grinning muscle - Risorius
Blowing/sucking/trumpeter's muscle - Buccinator
Chin muscle - Mentalis
Kissing muscle - Orbicularis oris

4

Dangerous area of the face
- area of the face near the nose drained by the ________ vein
- formed by the root of the nose and two angles of the mouth

facial

5

Cavernous Sinus Boundaries
Anterior: medial end of superior orbital fissure
Posterior: apex of petrous temporal bone
Medial: __________ above and __________ below
Lateral: __________ lobe and uncus
Superior: ____________
Inferior: endosteal dura mater, greater wing of sphenoid

Cavernous Sinus Boundaries
Anterior: medial end of superior orbital fissure
Posterior: apex of petrous temporal bone
Medial: pituitary above and sphenoid below
Lateral: temporal lobe and uncus
Superior: optic chiasm
Inferior: endosteal dura mater, greater wing of sphenoid

6

Cavernous sinus thrombosis
- results from infections in the orbit, nasal sinuses, and superior part of the face
- Facial veins make clinically important connections with the cavernous sinus through the ___________________ veins
- Structures that may be affected: (6)

Cavernous sinus thrombosis
- results from infections in the orbit, nasal sinuses, and superior part of the face
- Facial veins make clinically important connections with the cavernous sinus through the superior ophthalmic veins
- Structures that may be affected: CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI; ICA

7

VENOUS BLOOD SINUSES
________________ - at upper falx cerebri
________________ - at lower falx cerebri
________________ - at junction of falx cerebri with tentorium cerebelli; formed by the union of inferior sagittal and ________________ vein
________________ - from superior sagittal
________________ - from straight sinus
________________ - from transverse sinuses to internal jugular vein

VENOUS BLOOD SINUSES
Superior sagittal - at upper falx cerebri
Inferior sagittal - at lower falx cerebri
Straight sinus - at junction of falx cerebri with tentorium cerebelli; formed by the union of inferior sagittal and great cerebral vein
Right transverse - from superior sagittal
Left transverse - from straight sinus
Sigmoid - from transverse sinuses to internal jugular vein

8

What ganglion gives rise to the greater petrosal nerve, nerve to stapedius, chords tympani, posterior auricular nerve, and parotid plexus?

Geniculate ganglion

9

BELL'S PALSY
- affected CN ____
- paralysis of muscles in the (affected/contralateral) side

VII
affected

10

CORNEAL BLINK REFLEX
Afferent limb - __________ nerve of the _____________ division of the ______________
Efferent limb - _______ nerve (CN ____)

CORNEAL BLINK REFLEX
Afferent limb - nasocililary nerve of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)
Efferent limb - facial nerve (CN VII)

11

The skin on the side of the nose is supplied by the ______________ division of the trigeminal nerve.

maxillary

12

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA (Tic _______________)
- episodes of sharp, stabbing pain that radiates over the areas innervated by sensory branches of the ____________ or ___________ divisions of CN V

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA (Tic Douloureux)
- episodes of sharp, stabbing pain that radiates over the areas innervated by sensory branches of the maxillary or mandibular divisions of CN V

13

Muscles of deglutition are innervated by CN ___.
Muscles of phonation are innervated by CN ___.

IX
X

14

TONGUE
- mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane
- anterior 2/3 - mouth
- posterior 1/3 - _________
- divisible into R and L halves by a ___________
- attached to the ____________ and ____________ above, _____________ and ___________ below

TONGUE
- mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane
- anterior 2/3 - mouth
- posterior 1/3 - pharynx
- divisible into R and L halves by a median groove / median sulcus
- attached to the styloid process and soft palate above, mandible and hyoid bone below

15

Mucous membrane of the TONGUE
The upper surface is divided into anterior (oral) and posterior (pharyngeal) parts by a V-shaped sulcus, the ________________.
The apex projects backward and is marked by a small pit, the _______________, which represents the obliterated ______________ duct.

Mucous membrane of the TONGUE
The upper surface is divided into anterior (oral) and posterior (pharyngeal) parts by a V-shaped sulcus, the sulcus terminalis.
The apex projects backward and is marked by a small pit, the foramen cecum, which represents the obliterated thyroglossal duct.

16

Four intrinsic muscles of the TONGUE: ________
- alter _________ of the tongue
- innervated by the CN _____

Superior longitudinal
Inferior longitudinal
Transverse
Vertical

- alter shape of the tongue
- innervated by the CN XII

17

Extrinsic Muscles of the TONGUE
- alter the position of the tongue
- innervated by the CN ____ except for _______________ (CN X)
- extrinsic muscles of the tongue:
---- ______________ - elevation
---- ______________ - retraction
---- ______________ - depression
---- ______________ - protrusion

Extrinsic Muscles of the TONGUE
- alter the position of the tongue
- innervated by the CN XII except for palatoglossus (CN X)
- extrinsic muscles of the tongue:
---- palatoglossus - elevation
---- styloglossus - retraction
---- hyoglossus - depression
---- genioglossus - protrusion

18

Nerve Supply of the TONGUE
Muscles of tongue - CN XII except _______________ (CN X)
Mucous membrane of tongue
--- anterior 2/3 by CN ____
--- posterior 1/3 by CN ____
Taste buds of tongue
--- anterior 2/3 by CN ____
--- posterior 1/3 by CN ____

Nerve Supply of the TONGUE
Muscles of tongue - CN XII except palatoglossus (CN X)
Mucous membrane of tongue
--- anterior 2/3 by CN V
--- posterior 1/3 by CN IX
Taste buds of tongue
--- anterior 2/3 by CN VII
--- posterior 1/3 by CN IX

19

Blood vessels of the TONGUE
- lingual artery from ______________ artery
--- dorsal lingual
--- deep lingual
--- sublingual
- lingual vein drains into the ________

Blood vessels of the TONGUE
- lingual artery from external carotid artery
--- dorsal lingual
--- deep lingual
--- sublingual
- lingual vein drains into the IJV

20

Lymph Drainage of the TONGUE
posterior 3rd - ____________ LNs
medial part of anterior 2/3 - ___________ LNs
lateral of anterior 2/3 - ___________ LNs
apex - __________ LNs

Lymph Drainage of the TONGUE
posterior 3rd - superior deep cervical LNs
medial part of anterior 2/3 - inferior deep cervical LNs
lateral of anterior 2/3 - submandibular LNs
apex - submental LNs

21

Eye position after nerve injury to the:
Superior oblique - ___________
Lateral rectus - ___________
All else - ___________

Eye position after injury to the:
Superior oblique - extorted
Lateral rectus - adducted
All else - abducted depressed

22

_________________ nucleus and nerve
- located in the ventral part of the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain at the level of the _________ colliculus
- when damaged, causes:
--- ___________ (sagging of the upper eyelid)
--- ___________ (dilated pupil)

OCULOMOTOR nucleus and nerve
- located in the ventral part of the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus
- when damaged, causes:
--- ptosis (sagging of the upper eyelid)
--- mydriasis (dilated pupil)

23

_____________ Nucleus and Nerve
- located at the ventral border of the periaquedcutal gray of the midbrain at the level of the __________ colliculus
- when damaged, causes slight ___________ or outward rotation of the superior part of the eye; compensated by tilting of the head

TROCHLEAR Nucleus and Nerve
- located at the ventral border of the periaquedcutal gray of the midbrain at the level of the inferior colliculus
- when damaged, causes slight extorsion or outward rotation of the superior part of the eye; compensated by tilting of the head

24

____________ Nucleus and Nerve
- located beneath the facial colliculus in the floor of the fourth ventricle in the caudal pons
- when damaged, causes medial deviation or esotropia and paralysis of abduction of the ipsilateral eye

ABDUCENT Nucleus and Nerve
- located beneath the facial colliculus in the floor of the fourth ventricle in the caudal pons
- when damaged, causes medial deviation or esotropia and paralysis of abduction of the ipsilateral eye

25

V1 and V2 - sensory
V3
--- __________ - motor - mastication
--- __________ - sensory - skin of the face, general sensation of anterior 2/3 of the tongue

V1 and V2 - sensory
V3
--- anterior - motor - mastication
--- posterior - sensory - skin of the face, general sensation of anterior 2/3 of the tongue