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Flashcards in Head Deck (18):
1

The skull is composed of how many bones? ______
Paired cranial bones: (2)
Unpaired facial bones: (2)

22

Temporal
Parietal

Vomer
Mandible

2

The point of meeting and articulation of the frontal, parietal, squamous temporal and great wing of sphenoid; the thinnest portion of the skull

Pterion

2

Meeting point of frontal and nasal bones

Nasion

3

Anatomical point on the skull at which the coronal suture is intersected perpendicularly by the sagittal suture: ________

The occipital angle is rounded and corresponds with the point of meeting of the sagittal and the lambdoid suture—a point which is termed the ___________.

Bregma
lambda

5

Meeting point of occipital, parietal, and temporal bones

Asterion

6

Biconvex / lens-shaped hematoma; may be from a laceration of the middle meningeal artery due to a fracture at the pterion

Epidural hematoma

7

In __________ herniation, the temporal lobe compresses the midbrain where CN III arises, causing eye symptoms (anisocoria and loss of reflex)

uncal

8

Middle meningeal artery
- from ____________ artery of the ____________ artery
- enters the skull through ______________

maxillary
external carotid
foramen spinosum

9

Skull fracture at the _______________ may cause blood or CSF to escape from the ear and may cause hearing loss and facial nerve damage.
Skull fracture at the _______________ may cause anosmia, periorbital bruising or raccoon eyes, and CSF leakage from the nose.

petrous portion of the temporal bone
anterior cranial fossa (frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid bones)

10

MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES
Le Fort I - horizontal fracture superior to the ____________
Le Fort II - central part of the face separated from the ___________
Le Fort III - horizontal fracture that passes through the superior orbital fissures, ethmoid and nasal bones extending to __________ wing of the sphenoid; ___________ and ______________ separated from the cranium

MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES
Le Fort I - horizontal fracture superior to the maxillary alveolar process
Le Fort II - central part of the face separated from the cranium
Le Fort III - horizontal fracture that passes through the superior orbital fissures, ethmoid and nasal bones extending to greater wing of the sphenoid; maxillae and zygomatic bones separated from the cranium

11

SCALP
Layers:
- skin
- connective tissue
- _______________ - tendinous sheet covering the calvaria; responsible for gaping wound from scalp laceration
- _______________ - allows free movement of the scalp proper; __________ veins - danger
- pericranium/periosteum

aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
loose connective
emissary

12

Development of PITUITARY GLAND
- Hypophysial/Rathke's pouch - upgrowth from the ______ of the _________________; -> __________ pituitary
- Neurohypohysial bud - downgrowth from the forebrain (_____________); -> __________ pituitary

Development of PITUITARY GLAND
- Hypophysial/Rathke's pouch - upgrowth from the roof of the primitive mouth; -> anterior pituitary
- Neurohypohysial bud - downgrowth from the forebrain (diencephalon); -> posterior pituitary

13

EXTERNAL EAR
Auricle
- covered by skin
- made of ________ cartilage
- innervated by auricular branch of the CNs VII and X; greater auricular nerve, auriculotemporal branch of CN ___ and lesser occipital nerve (5,7,10)
External Auditory Meatus
- 2.5cm long; external 1/3 is ________________ and internal 2/3 is ________________
- innervated by the auriculotemporal branch of CN ____ and auricular branch of the CNs VII, IX, X (5,7,9,10)

EXTERNAL EAR
Auricle
- covered by skin
- made of elastic cartilage
- innervated by auricular branch of the CNs VII and X; greater auricular nerve, auriculotemporal branch of CN V and lesser occipital nerve (5,7,10)
External Auditory Meatus
- 2.5cm long; external 1/3 is cartilaginous and internal 2/3 is bony
- innervated by the auriculotemporal branch of CN V and auricular branch of the CNs VII, IX, X (5,7,9,10)

14

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
- consists of three layers
--- outer cutaneous
--- intermediate fibrous
--- inner mucous
- external/lateral concave surface - covered with skin; innervated by the auriculotemporal branch of CN ___ and auricular branches of the CNs VII, IX, X
- internal/medial surface - covered by mucous membrane and is innervated by the tympanic branch of the CN ___

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
- consists of three layers
--- outer cutaneous
--- intermediate fibrous
--- inner mucous
- external/lateral concave surface - covered with skin; innervated by the auriculotemporal branch of CN V and auricular branches of the CNs VII, IX, X
- internal/medial surface - covered by mucous membrane and is innervated by the tympanic branch of the CN IX

15

Cone of Light
- reflected light of an otoscope
- originating from the _________
- seen in the ______________ quadrant

Tympanic Cavity
- contained within the __________ part of the temporal bone
- contains the ________________ branch of CN VII and the _______________ of CN IX

Cone of Light
- reflected light of an otoscope
- originating from the umbo (central portion of tympanic membrane)
- seen in the anteroinferior quadrant

Tympanic Cavity
- contained within the petrous part of the temporal bone
- contains the chorda tympani branch of CN VII and the tympanic plexus of CN IX

16

MIDDLE EAR
- tympanic cavity - innervated by the tympanic branch of CN __
- stapedius muscle - CN __ - responsible for hyperacusis
- tensor tympani muscle - mandibular branch of CN __
- otosclerosis - abnormal bone formation around the _______ and _____ window - conduction deafness

MIDDLE EAR
- tympanic cavity - innervated by the tympanic branch of CN IX
- stapedius muscle - CN VII - responsible for hyperacusis
- tensor tympani muscle - mandibular branch of CN V
- otosclerosis - abnormal bone formation around the stapes and oval window - conduction deafness

17

INNER EAR
- Bony labyrinth - three parts - vestibule, three semicircular canals, and cochlea (upper scala _________, lower scala _________); contains _____lymph
- Membranous labyrinth - filled with ______lymph and contains the sensory organs _________ (in utricle and saccule) for linear acceleration and __________ (in semicircular ducts) for angular acceleration; cochlear duct or scala ________ containing organ of Corti for hearing

INNER EAR
- bony labyrinth - three parts - vestibule, three semicircular canals, and cochlea (upper scala vestibuli, lower scala tympani); contains perilymph
- membranous labyrinth - filled with endolymph and contains the sensory organs maculae (in utricle and saccule) for linear acceleration and ampullae (in semicircular ducts) for angular acceleration; cochlear duct or scala media containing organ of Corti for hearing

18

Membrane that separates scala vestibuli and scala media: _________
Membrane that separates scala media and scala tympani: _________

Vestibular / Reissner's membrane
Basilar membrane