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Flashcards in Thorax Deck (14):
1

STERNUM
- possesses red hematopoietic marrow; common site for marrow biopsy
1) Manubrium
--- The sternal angle of Louie (manubriosternal joint) articulates with the _____ rib.
--- corresponds to ____ vertebra level
2) Body
--- articulates with the ______ to _____ ribs
3) Xiphoid process
--- cartilaginous at birth, becomes bony by ____ years old
--- articulates with the body at the xiphisternal joint (____ vertebral level)

STERNUM
- possesses red hematopoietic marrow; common site for marrow biopsy
1) Manubrium
--- The sternal angle of Louie (manubriosternal joint) articulates with the 2nd rib.
--- corresponds to T4 vertebra level
2) Body
--- articulates with the 2nd to 7th ribs
3) Xiphoid process
--- cartilaginous at birth, becomes bony by 40 years old
--- articulates with the body at the xiphisternal joint (T9 vertebral level)

2

At the level of the sternal angle (T4-5)
- ________ ends (bifurcates into R and L bronchi)
- start and end of the aortic ______
- ________ vein drains into the SVC

At the level of the sternal angle (T4-5)
- trachea ends (bifurcates into R and L bronchi)
- start and end of the aortic arch
- azygous vein drains into the SVC

3

Floating ribs

11th and 12th

4

A groove at the shaft of a rib for protection of intercostal blood vessels and nerve

Costal groove

5

ARTICULATIONS
Head of rib - ________ of thoracic vertebra
Tubercle of rib - _________ of thoracic vertebra

ARTICULATIONS
Head of rib - body of thoracic vertebra
Tubercle of rib - transverse process of vertebra

6

The body of the T4 vertebra articulates with which of the following parts of the ribs?
A. Head of the 3rd rib
B. Neck of the 4th rib
C. Tubercle of the 4th rib
D. Head of the 5th rib
E. Tubercle of the 5th rib

D. Head of the 5th rib

7

Typical ribs - Ribs _____
Atypical ribs - Ribs _____

Typical ribs - Ribs 3-9
Atypical ribs - Ribs 1-2, 10-12

8

Rib ___
- broadest, most curved
- prominent __________ tubercle for attachment of _______________ muscle
- anterior to ____________________: ___________________ crossing the rib
- posterior to ____________________: __________________ and the lower trunk of the brachial plexus crossing the rib

Rib 1
- broadest, most curved
- prominent scalene tubercle for attachment of scalenus anterior muscle
- anterior to scalenus anterior: subclavian vein crossing the rib
- posterior to scalenus anterior: subclavian artery and the lower trunk of the brachial plexus crossing the rib

9

Rib 2
- thinner, less curved, longer
- has tuberosity for _________________
Rib 10
- articulates with T10 vertebra only
Rib 11-12
- short, have single facet on their heads
- have no ________ or ________

Rib 2
- thinner, less curved, longer
- has tuberosity for serratus anterior
Rib 10
- articulates with T10 vertebra only
Rib 11-12
- short, have single facet on their heads
- have no neck or tubercle

10

RIB FRACTURES
- commonly occur just ___________ to the angle of the rib, the weakest point of the rib
- may cause a pneumothorax
- The ______ rib is rarely fractured.
- Ribs ______ are the most commonly fractured ribs.
- Lower rib fracture has the complication of potentially injuring the diaphragm, causing diaphragmatic hernia.

RIB FRACTURES
- commonly occur just anterior to the angle of the rib, the weakest point of the rib
- may cause a pneumothorax
- The first rib is rarely fractured.
- Ribs 7-10 are the most commonly fractured ribs.
- Lower rib fracture has the complication of potentially injuring the diaphragm, causing diaphragmatic hernia.

11

____________________ a.k.a. ___________________
- where the thoracic cavity communicates with the root of the neck
- important vessels and nerves emerge from the thorax to enter the neck and upper limbs
Boundaries:
-- Anterior: _________
-- Lateral: medial border of the ______ rib
-- Posterior: _______ thoracic vertebra

THORACIC INLET a.k.a. THORACIC OUTLET
- where the thoracic cavity communicates with the root of the neck
- important vessels and nerves emerge from the thorax to enter the neck and upper limbs
Boundaries:
-- Anterior: manubrium of the sternum
-- Lateral: medial border of the first rib
-- Posterior: first thoracic vertebra

12

THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME
- Symptoms caused by pressure on the lower trunk of the plexus producing pain down the _________ forearm and hand; and wasting of hand muscles
- Pressure on the blood vessels may compromise the circulation of the upper limb

THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME
- Symptoms caused by pressure on the lower trunk of the plexus producing pain down the medial forearm and hand; and wasting of hand muscles
- Pressure on the blood vessels may compromise the circulation of the upper limb

13

MOVEMENTS OF THE THORACIC WALL
_______________ inspiratory movement
- Intercostal muscles contract on inspiration, moving ribs laterally and increasing the ___________ diameter of the thorax.
_______________ inspiratory movement
- __________ moves up on inspiration, increasing the AP diameter of the thorax.

MOVEMENTS OF THE THORACIC WALL
Bucket handle inspiratory movement
- Intercostal muscles contract on inspiration, moving ribs laterally and increasing the tranverse diameter of the thorax.
Pump handle inspiratory movement
- Sternum moves up on inspiration, increasing the AP diameter of the thorax.

14

MUSCLES OF THE THORACIC WALL (8) and their action on ribs
Vertebra to Ribs
- Serratus posterior superior - _________
- Serratus posterior inferior - _________
- Levator costarum - elevate
RIbs to ribs
- External intercostal - __________
- Internal intercostal - __________
- Innermost intercostal - _________
- Subcostal - _________
Sternum to ribs
- Transversus thoracis - _________

MUSCLES OF THE THORACIC WALL (8) and their action n ribs
Vertebra to Ribs
- Serratus posterior superior - elevate
- Serratus posterior inferior - depress
- Levator costarum - elevate
RIbs to ribs
- External intercostal - elevate
- Internal intercostal - depress
- Innermost intercostal - elevate
- Subcostal - elevate
Sternum to ribs
- Transversus thoracis - depress