Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (28):
1

Structure that produces eggs

Ovaries

2

Structure that transports eggs to uterus; where fertilization takes place

Fallopian tubes

3

Structure that produces the sperm

Testes

4

Structure where sperm matures/becomes functional; involved in sperm transportation

Epididymus

5

Goes with epididymus, more transport role

Ductus deferens

6

What are the different pathologies of the reproductive system?

1. Infertility
2. Infections and inflammation
3. Tumors

7

Abnormal localization of endometrial tissue; Can be located in myometrium or in sites outside the uterus; Functional and responds to hormonal stimulation

Endometriosis

8

What are risk factors of endometriosis?

1. Woman of childbearing years (10-15%)
2. More common in women who postpone pregnancy
3. Early menarche
4. Menstrual cycles 27 days or less
5. Menstrual periods lasting 7 days or longer

9

What are S and S of endometriosis?

Low abdominal or pelvic pain associated with menstrual period:
1. Uterine involvement – dyspareunia (pain during intercourse)
2. Bladder involvement – dysuria (pain during urination)
3. Rectal – pain on defecation

10

What should PTs be aware of with when muscle testing that could actually be a symptom of endometriosis?

False findings; i.e., if endometrial pain is on iliopsoas, pt will report pain when m is tested

11

Occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus

ectopic pregnancy

12

What are the sis factors for ectopic pregnancy?

1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
2. Prior tubal surgery
3. Ruptured appendix
4. Endometriosis
5. Previous ectopic pregnancy
6. Infertility

13

What are clinical manifestations of an ectopic pregnancy?

1. Amenorrhea or irregular bleeding
2. Lower abdominal quadrant or back pain
3. Pelvic mass
4. S and S of normal pregnancy

14

Failure to begin menstrual cycles

Primary amenorrhea

15

Failure of menstrual cycle after a variable period of normal function

Secondary amenorrhea

16

What is the 2nd most common urogenital cancer?

Ovarian cancer (number 1 in deaths)

17

At diagnosis, ___% of cases have metastasized

60-70

18

What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?

1. Nulliparity (not having become pregnant at all)
2. Family history
3. History of infertility

19

What are protective factors for ovarian cancer?

1. 1 or more full term pregnancies
2. History of breastfeeding
3. Use of oral contraceptives
4. Native American women

20

This cancer is often asymptomatic or vague (abdominal bloating, flatulence, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain), which is why it is often found after metastasis has occurred which cause weight loss, cachexia, weakness, ascites, shoulder girdle or thoracic pain.

Ovarian cancer

21

Fibrosis and cysts that occur in the breasts; pain, fine nodules in breast tissue, tenderness

Fibrocystic chance

22

Tumors that feel separate from other tissues; usually well encapsulated, usually 2-5 cm diameter; usually affect young women

benign breast tumors

23

2nd most common tumor in women; causes are hormonal (early monarchy, late menopause, nulliparous or late first pregnancy) and genetic

Malignant breast tumor

24

What are potential risk factors of malignant breast tumors?

1. Oral contraceptives
2. Hormone therapy
3. High-fat diet
4. Alcohol consumption

25

What are some clinical manifestations of malignant breast tumors?

1. usually surrounded by dense connective tissue
2. causes puckering of skin and retraction of the nipple
3. tumors are firm, but no sharp margin
4. typically not painful

26

Where can breast cancer metastasize to?

Usually axillary lymph nodes (50% at dx), but also in liver, bones, brain, and adrenals

27

What are physiological changes due to menopause?

1. Hot flashes
2. Changes in reproductive organs (Dryness and atrophy, dyspareunia, stress incontinence, vaginal itching and burning)
3. Osteoporosis
4. Cardiovascular diseases

28

What are psychological changes of menopause?

1. Nervousness
2. Depression
3. Headache
4. Insomnia
5. Decreased sex drive
6. Memory loss
7. Vertigo