Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (28):
Structure that produces eggs
Structure that transports eggs to uterus; where fertilization takes place
Structure that produces the sperm
Structure where sperm matures/becomes functional; involved in sperm transportation
Goes with epididymus, more transport role
What are the different pathologies of the reproductive system?
2. Infections and inflammation
Abnormal localization of endometrial tissue; Can be located in myometrium or in sites outside the uterus; Functional and responds to hormonal stimulation
What are risk factors of endometriosis?
1. Woman of childbearing years (10-15%)
2. More common in women who postpone pregnancy
3. Early menarche
4. Menstrual cycles 27 days or less
5. Menstrual periods lasting 7 days or longer
What are S and S of endometriosis?
Low abdominal or pelvic pain associated with menstrual period:
1. Uterine involvement – dyspareunia (pain during intercourse)
2. Bladder involvement – dysuria (pain during urination)
3. Rectal – pain on defecation
What should PTs be aware of with when muscle testing that could actually be a symptom of endometriosis?
False findings; i.e., if endometrial pain is on iliopsoas, pt will report pain when m is tested
Occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus
What are the sis factors for ectopic pregnancy?
1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
2. Prior tubal surgery
3. Ruptured appendix
5. Previous ectopic pregnancy
What are clinical manifestations of an ectopic pregnancy?
1. Amenorrhea or irregular bleeding
2. Lower abdominal quadrant or back pain
3. Pelvic mass
4. S and S of normal pregnancy
Failure to begin menstrual cycles
Failure of menstrual cycle after a variable period of normal function
What is the 2nd most common urogenital cancer?
Ovarian cancer (number 1 in deaths)
At diagnosis, ___% of cases have metastasized
What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?
1. Nulliparity (not having become pregnant at all)
2. Family history
3. History of infertility
What are protective factors for ovarian cancer?
1. 1 or more full term pregnancies
2. History of breastfeeding
3. Use of oral contraceptives
4. Native American women
This cancer is often asymptomatic or vague (abdominal bloating, flatulence, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain), which is why it is often found after metastasis has occurred which cause weight loss, cachexia, weakness, ascites, shoulder girdle or thoracic pain.
Fibrosis and cysts that occur in the breasts; pain, fine nodules in breast tissue, tenderness
Tumors that feel separate from other tissues; usually well encapsulated, usually 2-5 cm diameter; usually affect young women
benign breast tumors
2nd most common tumor in women; causes are hormonal (early monarchy, late menopause, nulliparous or late first pregnancy) and genetic
Malignant breast tumor
What are potential risk factors of malignant breast tumors?
1. Oral contraceptives
2. Hormone therapy
3. High-fat diet
4. Alcohol consumption
What are some clinical manifestations of malignant breast tumors?
1. usually surrounded by dense connective tissue
2. causes puckering of skin and retraction of the nipple
3. tumors are firm, but no sharp margin
4. typically not painful
Where can breast cancer metastasize to?
Usually axillary lymph nodes (50% at dx), but also in liver, bones, brain, and adrenals
What are physiological changes due to menopause?
1. Hot flashes
2. Changes in reproductive organs (Dryness and atrophy, dyspareunia, stress incontinence, vaginal itching and burning)
4. Cardiovascular diseases