Flashcards in Cellular Basis of Patho Deck (46):
Where are genetic disorders mostly based?
In the nucleus
What consists of filaments and tubules, gives the cell its shape, changes in response to stressors on the cell, and can change how the cell works based on its structure?
Gel that fills up the cell
What is the main organelle for aerobic metabolism?
What organelle converts chemicals into energy?
What diseases are inherited by the mother?
Mitochondrial diseases formed by mitochondrial DNA
What mitochondrial disease causes the optic nerve to break down and lead to blindness?
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
What organelle [only] makes proteins?
What does the rough ER do?
Makes proteins and synthesizes steroids
What does smooth ER do?
Metabolizes drugs and other things?
What organelle takes proteins made by the rough ER and packages them for use somewhere in the cell/body?
Achondrogenesis type 1A is caused by problems with what organelle's structure or function?
What organelle breaks down substances in our cells?
These types of diseases are caused by large molecules accumulating within the cell, eventually leading to the cell's death
Lysosome storage diseases
A structure made up of cells of the same category
More than one organ working together to achieve a certain function
What are the two main ways cells communicate?
Neural and Hormonal
What are the three types of hormonal cells?
Hormonal cell type:
Cell A releases substance A; Substance A binds to cell A. Self-regulating
Hormonal cell type:
Substance releases, diffuses through fluid and has an impact on neighboring cell
Hormonal cell type:
Releases substance, diffuses into blood and has an impact on targets that are far away
With this, you have decreased energy production, decreased activity of the Na/K pump, and the cell swells
Reversible Cell Injury
What is the process of recovery of a reversible cell injury?
- Adverse stimuli removed
- Energy production resumes
- Pump becomes active again
- Water is pumped out
What is the main organelle affected in an irreversible cell injury?
What changes are made to the cell in an irreversible cell injury?
- Nuclear changes
- Rupture of cell membrane
- Cessation of cellular respiration
- Release of cellular contents
What cell contents can be tested for in suspected heart attack victims?
Excess proteins that have been released into the blood
What cell content can further damage the body when cell contents are released in an irreversible cell injury?
What [5 things] can injure cells?
3. Microbes and viruses
4. Inflammatory and immune responses
5. Genetic and metabolic disturbances
Chemical is the toxin source
Toxin has to be metabolized first to become toxic
Tissue is not stimulated enough, decreases in size and cells decrease in size
Atrophy; physiological = things don't work as well as we age; pathological = response due to pathology
Stimulated tissue causes individual cells to become larger
Increase in cell number; i.e., something rubs against the foot and causes a callus
Changes in the cell that go back to normal after adverse stimulus is removed
Cells change and reach a point where the changes are no longer reversible
Programmed cell death [natural]
Cells die from something that is not natural
Name the four main types of necrosis.
1. Coagulative necrosis
2. Liquefactive necrosis
3. Caseous necrosis
4. Fat necrosis
Most common type of necrosis; tissues die and lysosomes become inactive; often due to anoxia
Necrosis where dead tissue liquefies and goes away; typical of brain infarcts
Necrosis that forms flakey, crumbly substance; typically found in TB and fungal infections
[caseous = cheese]
Special form of liquefactive necrosis; digestive enzymes get into surrounding tissues, break down fat into fatty acids, FA binds and calcium turns into liquid
Secondary change in necrotic tissue; mostly occurs in an internal body organ, associated with infection
Secondary change in necrotic tissue; tissue dies, dries out and becomes mummified
Dry gangrene; typically has better outcome than wet gangrene