Cellular Basis of Patho Flashcards Preview

System Screenings I > Cellular Basis of Patho > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular Basis of Patho Deck (46):
1

Where are genetic disorders mostly based?

In the nucleus

2

What consists of filaments and tubules, gives the cell its shape, changes in response to stressors on the cell, and can change how the cell works based on its structure?

Cytoskeleton

3

Gel that fills up the cell

Hyaloplasm

4

What is the main organelle for aerobic metabolism?

Mitochondria

5

What organelle converts chemicals into energy?

Mitochondria

6

What diseases are inherited by the mother?

Mitochondrial diseases formed by mitochondrial DNA

7

What mitochondrial disease causes the optic nerve to break down and lead to blindness?

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

8

What organelle [only] makes proteins?

Ribosomes

9

What does the rough ER do?

Makes proteins and synthesizes steroids

10

What does smooth ER do?

Metabolizes drugs and other things?

11

What organelle takes proteins made by the rough ER and packages them for use somewhere in the cell/body?

Golgi Apparatus

12

Achondrogenesis type 1A is caused by problems with what organelle's structure or function?

Golgi Apparatus

13

What organelle breaks down substances in our cells?

Lysosomes

14

These types of diseases are caused by large molecules accumulating within the cell, eventually leading to the cell's death

Lysosome storage diseases

15

A structure made up of cells of the same category

Tissue

16

Combined tissues

Organ

17

More than one organ working together to achieve a certain function

Organ systems

18

What are the two main ways cells communicate?

Neural and Hormonal

19

What are the three types of hormonal cells?

1. Autocrine
2. Paracrine
3. Endocrine

20

Hormonal cell type:
Cell A releases substance A; Substance A binds to cell A. Self-regulating

Autocrine

21

Hormonal cell type:
Substance releases, diffuses through fluid and has an impact on neighboring cell

Paracrine

22

Hormonal cell type:
Releases substance, diffuses into blood and has an impact on targets that are far away

Endocrine

23

With this, you have decreased energy production, decreased activity of the Na/K pump, and the cell swells

Reversible Cell Injury

24

What is the process of recovery of a reversible cell injury?

- Adverse stimuli removed
- Energy production resumes
- Pump becomes active again
- Water is pumped out

25

What is the main organelle affected in an irreversible cell injury?

Nuclei

26

What changes are made to the cell in an irreversible cell injury?

- Nuclear changes
- Rupture of cell membrane
- Cessation of cellular respiration
- Release of cellular contents

27

What cell contents can be tested for in suspected heart attack victims?

Excess proteins that have been released into the blood

28

What cell content can further damage the body when cell contents are released in an irreversible cell injury?

K+

29

What [5 things] can injure cells?

1. Hypoxia/anoxia
2. Toxins
3. Microbes and viruses
4. Inflammatory and immune responses
5. Genetic and metabolic disturbances

30

Chemical is the toxin source

Direct toxicity

31

Toxin has to be metabolized first to become toxic

Indirect toxicity

32

Tissue is not stimulated enough, decreases in size and cells decrease in size

Atrophy; physiological = things don't work as well as we age; pathological = response due to pathology

33

Stimulated tissue causes individual cells to become larger

Hypertrophy

34

Increase in cell number; i.e., something rubs against the foot and causes a callus

Hyperplasia

35

Changes in the cell that go back to normal after adverse stimulus is removed

Metaplasia

36

Cells change and reach a point where the changes are no longer reversible

Dysplasia

37

Programmed cell death [natural]

Apoptosis

38

Cells die from something that is not natural

Necrosis

39

Name the four main types of necrosis.

1. Coagulative necrosis
2. Liquefactive necrosis
3. Caseous necrosis
4. Fat necrosis

40

Most common type of necrosis; tissues die and lysosomes become inactive; often due to anoxia

Coagulative necrosis

41

Necrosis where dead tissue liquefies and goes away; typical of brain infarcts

Liquefactive necrosis

42

Necrosis that forms flakey, crumbly substance; typically found in TB and fungal infections

Caseous necrosis
[caseous = cheese]

43

Special form of liquefactive necrosis; digestive enzymes get into surrounding tissues, break down fat into fatty acids, FA binds and calcium turns into liquid

Fat necrosis

44

Secondary change in necrotic tissue; mostly occurs in an internal body organ, associated with infection

Wet gangrene

45

Secondary change in necrotic tissue; tissue dies, dries out and becomes mummified

Dry gangrene; typically has better outcome than wet gangrene

46

Secondary change in necrotic tissue; happens when tissues die and attracts calcium deposits that build up over time

Dystrophic calcification