Flashcards in Male Reproductive Pathology Deck (22):
What are congenital abnormalities of the male reproductive system?
1. Cryptoorchidism (most common)
2. Testicular torsion
When 1 or both testes do not move down into scrotum; leads to sterility if untreated; increased risk of testicular caner (even if repaired sx)
Abnormal twisting of the spermatic cord; surgical emergency; can occur after physical activity; Rapid onset of scrotal pain (may extend to inguinal region) and swelling
<3 hours = 80% salvage
>12 hours = 20% salvage
acute or chronic inflammation of one or both testes; complication of pump, UTI, or infections of other regions of the body
Orchiditis (general infection signs; usually no urinary dysfunction if ONLY orchiditis)
inflammation of the tube at the beach of the testicle that stores and carries sperm; necrosis and fibrosis may occlude the genital ducts and produce infertility
Swelling of the prostate; about 50% of men have at least one episode; risk factors include stress, emotional factor, alcohol, spicy foods, caffeine
Prostatitis (PTs usually see chronic)
What are the categories of prostatitis?
Category I – acute bacterial prostatitis
Category II – Chronic bacterial prostatitis
Category III – Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
Category IV – Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
Prostatitis category: Least common, easiest to treat and dx; High fever, chills, pain in low back and genital area, urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria, urethral discharge, body aches; TX: antibiotics
Prostatitis category: a chronic, low grade infection; ν May be asymptomatic, urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria, nocturne, low grade fever, and low back and rectal pain
Prostatitis category: ν Most common kind (>90%); Can come and go without warning; Can be inflammatory or non-inflammatory; Dysuria, impotence, decreased libido, low back, rectal, and scrotal pain; May be related to excessive alcohol or caffeine intake; TX: cut down on controllable factors – alcohol, caffeine intake; remove stimulis causing problem
Prostatitis category: Asymptomatic (diagnosed during other examinations);
May lead to sterility
3% of male urogenital cancers; Most common solid cancer (solid tumor) of men 15-35 y.o; Risk factors include cryptoorchidism, mother taking estrogen during pregnancy, history of infertility, scrotal trauma, or infection
What are the S and S of testicular cancer?
1. Enlargement of the testis – most common initial sign
2. Ache in abdomen or scrotum, or heavy feeling in the scrotum
What are signs testicular cancer has metastasized?
1. Back pain – (21% of men with germ cell cancer [this is the first sign!! - **PT**]
2. Abdominal mass
4. Neck or supraclavicular adenopathy
Non-malignant tumor; Proliferation of epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts in the prostate gland; Usually initially in the periurethral; Related to changes in estrogen and testosterone levels that occur with aging; 75% men >50 have signs
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (main sx involve urinary problems)
What drugs are used to treat prostatic hyperplasia?
1. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (ADR sexual dysfucntion)
2. Alpha-blockers (ADR related to low BP)
Which prostatic hyperplasia drug can stop the progression of the disease, but may take a while for benefits to occur?
5 alpha reductase inhibitors
Which prostatic hyperplasia drug acts relatively quickly but won't block the progression of the disease?
What is the most common cancer in men?
Cancer that develops in the periphery of the gland, away from the urethra then gets closer as the disease draws closer?
Where will pain be if a person presents with prostate cancer?
1. Rectal region
2. Sacral or lumbar spine region (bony metastasis)
3. Thoracic or shoulder girdle (lymphatic spread or bony metastasis)