Flashcards in Hematology Deck (47):
What are the functions of blood?
Process by which immature cells deveol into mature blood cells
Where is blood produced?
What is the composition of blood?
1. Plasma (55-60%)
2. Buffy layer (WBCs and Platelets)
3. Hematocrit (40-45%)
What is the average RBC count?
1. Males 4.6-6.2 million/mL
2. Females 4.2-5.4 million/mL
What is the hemoglobin count?
1. Males 14-17 g/dL
2. Females 12-16 g/dL
What are the different measurements of RBC?
1. RBC count
2. Hemoglobin concentration*
4. C something abbreviations
If a RBC measurement has C in its abbreviation, what does that mean?
Dealing with oxygen
What are the causes of anemia?
1. Decreased RBC production
2. Excessive blood loss
3. RBC destruction
What are the S and S of anemia?
4. Pale skin
5. Irregular heart beat
6. Shortness of breath
What is the most common form of anemia?
Iron deficiency anemia
What are the types of anemia?
1. Iron deficiency anemia
2. Vitamin deficiency
3. Aplastic anemia
4. Postoperative anemia
5. Anemia of chronic disease
What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia? What are there other causes?
Chronic blood loss from medication (i.e., NSAIDs) and GI disorders (i.e., ulcers);
1. Poor nutrition
2. Inability to absorb iron
4. Heavy menstruation
Anemia that results from deficiency of folate and vitamin B12
Vitamin deficiency anemia
Anemia that results from complete cessation of RBC production from bone marrow failure
Anemia that results from blood loss during and after major surgery
Anemia that is found in patients with long term medical conditions
Anemia of chronic disease (decrease responsiveness of bone marrow to produce less RBCs)
How low is Hb count too low for PT?
1. Hgb < 8 only essential daily activities
2. Hgb > 8 light activity (ambulation and self care) as tolerated
What WBCs are granulocytes?
What WBCs are agruanulocytes?
2. Lymphocytes (B and T cells)
What are the two disorders of WBCs (aka leukocytes)?
1. Leukopenia (not enough) aka neutropenia
2. Leukocytosis (too many)
The abnormal blood cells are blasts that remain very immature and cannot carry out their normal functions; the number of blasts increases rapidly, and the disease gets worse quickly
some blast cells are present, but in general, these cells are more mature and can carry out some of their normal functions; gets worse gradually
Chronic (slower progression of disease)
Abnormal WBC’s are lymphocytes
Lymphoblastic or lymphocytic
Abnormal WBC’s are granulocytes or monocytes
Massive infiltration of bone marrow with immature lymphocyte cells that also spill out into the blood;Peak in children <5 years, rare in adults
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
5yr survival: 69%, 92% in children >15
Lymphocytes mutate and are stimulated to increase and avoid cell death
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
5yr survival: 83%
Massive infiltration of blasts (immature cells); Most common leukemia in adults
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
5yr survival: 25%, 65% in children >15
Overproduction of WBC’s; Chronic phase to accelerated phase to aggressive phase; slow, non- specific onset
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
5yr survival rate: 59%
Solid tumors arising from cells of lymphatic system; Lymph nodes involved first and often spreads to extranodal tissue
Good prognosis if under 60 and lack of extra nodal involvement
What are the stages of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
Stage I: single lymph node region
Stage II: two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm
Stage III: lymph node involvement on both sides of the diaphragm
Stage IV: wide spread with involvement of one or more extranodal tissues and nonlymphoid organs
Malignancies of plasma cells in bone marrow; Collection of abnormal cells accumulate in bones; Bone loss leads to bone pain, fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia
Clot is large enough to obstruct a small vessel
Clot breaks free and travels in the bloodstream
Secrete clotting factors which promote blood clotting; Secrete vasoconstrictors; Form temporary plugs to stop bleeding; Dissolve blood clots that have outlasted their usefulness
What medications are commonly prescribed to decrease clotting?
Paraffin, Coumadin, Heparin (Aspirin and NSAIDs also)
RBC excess caused by protein mutation; Chronic state can lead to enlarge spleen, blood clots, stroke, or myocardial infarction; Main treatment is phlebotomy
Platelets are high, but stick together and aren’t able to do their job; Increased platelet count; Higher risk of stroke and myocardial infarction
Most common inherited bleeding disorder; Symptoms usually are mild
von Willebrand's Disease
Rare bleeding disorder inherited as a sex-linked autosomal recessive trait; A lacks clot factor 8 (80% cases), B lacks clot factor 9 (20% cases); Life threatening if deep internal bleeding or bleeding in joints
Decrease in platelet count; Increased risk of bleeding; Often caused by another disorder (leukemia, metastatic cancer, and aggressive chemotherapy)
What are the two hemoglobinopathies?
1. Sickle cell disease
Autosomal recessive disorder; defect in the synthesis of hemoglobin; Causes RBC’s to change from biconcave to crescent or sickle shape; Clog small blood vessels and deprive tissue of adequate blood supply
Sickle cell disease
Abnormalities in 1 or more of the 4 global genes resulting in incomplete or abnormal formation of Hgb; Severe forms needs frequent blood transfusions
Occurs when organs aren’t getting enough blood or oxygen
What are S and S of shock?
1. Cool, clammy skin
2. Pale, ashen skin
3. Rapid pulse
4. Rapid breathing
5. Nausea or vomiting
6. Enlarged pupils
7. Weakness or fatigue
8. Dizziness or fainting
9. Change in mental status