File 4.0-4.5: Morphology (F) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in File 4.0-4.5: Morphology (F) Deck (33)
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morphology

the component of mental grammar that deals with types of words and how words are formed out of smaller meaningful pieces and other words, the internal structure of words

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Lexicon

A mental dictionary

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Lexical categories

Also called: parts of speech.
Lexical categories are classes of words that differ in how other words can be constructed out of them
I.e. if a word belongs to the lexical category verb, it is possible to add -ing or -able to it to get another word (e.g., wind and drink are verbs). If a word belongs to the lexical category adjective, you can add -ness or -est to it to get another word (e.g., quick and happy are adjectives). If a word belongs to the category noun, you can usually add -s to it to make it plural (e.g., desk)

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Open lexical categories

Are open for new words. Are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

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Closed lexical categories

rarely acquire new members. Closed lexical categories include pronouns (e.g., we, she, they), determiners (e.g., a, the, this, your), prepositions (e.g., on, of, under, for), and conjunctions (e.g., and, or, but)

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Root

A word is a root when other words are build from it. Catty can be derived from cat.

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Derivation

This process of creating words out of other words is called derivation. Derivation takes one word and performs one or more “operations” on it, the result being some other word, often of a different lexical category.

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Affix

Added pieces to a stem are affixes

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Stem

The part the affix is fixed upon is called the stem, this can also be the same was the root.

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Derivational affixes

Affixes that participate in derivational processes
Making a new word from a root

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Inflection

The creation of different grammatical forms of words. Inflection uses the same sorts of pieces, such as stems and affixes, or processes that derivation does, but the important difference is the linguistic entity that inflection creates—forms of words, rather than entirely new words. For example, in contrast to derivational affixes, inflectional affixes such as -s typically do not change the lexical category of the word—both cat and cats are nouns.

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What different properties of a word must be considered when looking at words and deciding if they mean the same or are different?

- phonological from
- meaning
- lexical category

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What types of process of affixation are there?

- prefix (before stem)
- affix (after stem)
- infix (in the middle)

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Compounding

Compounding is a process that forms new words not by means of affixes but from two or more independent words. The words that are the parts of the compound can be free morphemes, words derived by affixation, or even words formed by compounding themselves
- girlfriend
- textbook

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What are the 5 processes that can be used in a language to form words?

- compounding
- affixation
- reduplication
- alternation
- suppletion

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Analytic morphological type

are made up of sequences of free morphemes—each word consists of a single morpheme, used by itself with meaning and function intact.

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Isolating languages

A language that is purely analytic, they do not use any affixes
Type of analytical languages

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Suppletion

process of change whereby one form of a word has no phonological similarity to a related form of that word
A root that has no logical process of creating new words. Such as the verb go - went and is - was. They are irregular and don't follow the normal rules of making new words.

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Morpheme

the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)

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Homophonous

affixes that sound alike but have different meanings or functions

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Free morpheme

may stand alone as a word

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Bound morpheme

must be attached to other morphemes; cannot stand alone

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Infix

A type of bound morpheme that is inserted into the middle of a word

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Reduplication

Repeating a whole syllable (e.g. dada and mama)

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Alternation

Morpheme-internal modifications
Changing a word also changes the word's meaning to plural or something
Goose - geese
Man - men

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Synthetic morphological type

do use affixes to create words, or use a lot of them even

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Agglutinating language

a language that allows a great number of morphemes per word and has highly regular rules for combining morphemes

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Fusional language

A type of synthetic language in which the relationships between the words in a sentence are indicated by bound morphemes that are difficult to separate from the stem.

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Polysynthetic language

A type of language that attaches several affixes to a stem to indicate grammatical relationships.

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Input

Stems which are given an affix