File 13.1 en 13.6: Language change (F) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to linguistics > File 13.1 en 13.6: Language change (F) > Flashcards

Flashcards in File 13.1 en 13.6: Language change (F) Deck (8)
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1

synchronically

analysis of a language at a particular point in time.

2

diachronic

analysis of language across time

3

historical linguistics

the study of language change.

4

extension

a diachronic semantic change by which the set of appropriate contexts or referents for a word increases. for ex.: 'to nuke' can also mean 'to destroy' nowadays.

5

metaphorical extension

An expansion of the meaning of a word to include an object or concept that is like the original referent in some metaphorical sense rather than a literal sense. For ex.: "to broadcast" (which originally meant "to scatter seed over a field")

6

reductions

occurs when the set of appropriate contexts or referents for a word decreases. for ex.: hound/hund used to refer to all dogs. now hound refers to one breed.

7

elevations

occurs when a word takes on somewhat grander or more positive connotations over time. for ex.: knight (used to mean low rank in military)

8

degradations

occurs when a word acquires a more pejorative meaning over time. for example: lust (pleasure) -> lust (in a sinful way)