File 10.0-10.4: Language variation (F) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to linguistics > File 10.0-10.4: Language variation (F) > Flashcards

Flashcards in File 10.0-10.4: Language variation (F) Deck (43)
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1

Internal variation

within a single language, there are different ways of expressing the same meaning

2

Language variation

The term language variety is used by linguists as a cover term to refer to any form of language characterized by systematic features

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Idiolect

Every native speaker speaks his own idiolect, which differs systematically from the idiolects of other native speakers.
The language variety of an individual speaker

4

Sociolinguistics

The study of the relationship between these language varieties and social structure as well as the interrelationships among different language varieties

5

Dialect

a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group.

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Accent

the manner in which people speak and the way words are pronounced in different parts of the world

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Speech community

A group of people speaking the same dialect

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Extralinguistic factors

factors not based in linguistic structure, such as region, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and ethnicity

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Communicative isolation

coherent speech community relatively isolated from speakers outside of that community

10

Mutual intelligibility

If speakers of one language variety can understand speakers of another language variety, and vice versa, we say that these varieties are mutually intelligible and therefore they are dialects of the same language

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Dialect continuum

This is a situation where, in a large number of geographically contiguous dialects, each dialect is closely related to the next, but the dialects at either end of the continuum (scale) are mutually unintelligible.

12

Jargon

also called technical language, is a language variety that differs only in lexical items

13

Slang

has to do more with stylistic choices in vocabulary than with systematic lexical differences between varietie

2 types:
- common slang
- in-group slang

14

Common slang

The nearly neutral everyday language that most people consider just a little too informal for letters of application and the like is known as common slang. This includes words like fridge for refrigerator or TV for television

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In-group slang

a type of slang that is associated with a particular group at a particular time

16

Standard dialect

used by political leaders, the media, and speakers from higher socioeconomic classes. It is also generally the variety taught in schools and to non-native speakers in language classes. Every language has at least one standard dialect, which serves as the primary means of communication across dialects.

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Nonstandard dialect

All other dialects

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Prestige

Socially speaking, the standard dialect is the dialect of prestige and power.

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Prescriptive standard

the standard by which people often make judgments of “right” and “wrong”

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Hypercorrection

an attempt to be overly "correct" resulting in the production of language different from the standard ("between Harlan and I" instead of "between Harlan and me")

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Bidialectal

being capable of speaking two dialects

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Overt prestige

Positive value assigned to language forms based on the value of the form in larger society

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Covert prestige

In this case, the desire to “belong” to or associate oneself with a particular group often becomes the overriding factor.

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Non-rhotic

A language variety in which sequences of vowel-/r/-consonant or vowel-/r/-word boundary are not permitted to occur.

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Rhotic

A language variety in which sequences of vowel-/r/-consonant or vowel-/r/-word boundary are permitted to occur.

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Regional dialect

Variety of language defined by region or geography.

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Social dialect

Variety of a language defined by social factors such as age, religion, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status

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Regional variation

Same as regional dialect: Variety of language defined by region or geography.

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dialectologists

A person who studies Regional Dialects and Regional Variation

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Isogloss

A line drawn on a dialect map marking the boundary of an area where a particular linguistic feature is found.