Flashcards in File 10.0-10.4: Language variation (F) Deck (43)
within a single language, there are different ways of expressing the same meaning
The term language variety is used by linguists as a cover term to refer to any form of language characterized by systematic features
Every native speaker speaks his own idiolect, which differs systematically from the idiolects of other native speakers.
The language variety of an individual speaker
The study of the relationship between these language varieties and social structure as well as the interrelationships among different language varieties
a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group.
the manner in which people speak and the way words are pronounced in different parts of the world
A group of people speaking the same dialect
factors not based in linguistic structure, such as region, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and ethnicity
coherent speech community relatively isolated from speakers outside of that community
If speakers of one language variety can understand speakers of another language variety, and vice versa, we say that these varieties are mutually intelligible and therefore they are dialects of the same language
This is a situation where, in a large number of geographically contiguous dialects, each dialect is closely related to the next, but the dialects at either end of the continuum (scale) are mutually unintelligible.
also called technical language, is a language variety that differs only in lexical items
has to do more with stylistic choices in vocabulary than with systematic lexical differences between varietie
- common slang
- in-group slang
The nearly neutral everyday language that most people consider just a little too informal for letters of application and the like is known as common slang. This includes words like fridge for refrigerator or TV for television
a type of slang that is associated with a particular group at a particular time
used by political leaders, the media, and speakers from higher socioeconomic classes. It is also generally the variety taught in schools and to non-native speakers in language classes. Every language has at least one standard dialect, which serves as the primary means of communication across dialects.
All other dialects
Socially speaking, the standard dialect is the dialect of prestige and power.
the standard by which people often make judgments of “right” and “wrong”
an attempt to be overly "correct" resulting in the production of language different from the standard ("between Harlan and I" instead of "between Harlan and me")
being capable of speaking two dialects
Positive value assigned to language forms based on the value of the form in larger society
In this case, the desire to “belong” to or associate oneself with a particular group often becomes the overriding factor.
A language variety in which sequences of vowel-/r/-consonant or vowel-/r/-word boundary are not permitted to occur.
A language variety in which sequences of vowel-/r/-consonant or vowel-/r/-word boundary are permitted to occur.
Variety of language defined by region or geography.
Variety of a language defined by social factors such as age, religion, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status
Same as regional dialect: Variety of language defined by region or geography.
A person who studies Regional Dialects and Regional Variation