File 9.0-9.2: Psycholinguistics (F) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to linguistics > File 9.0-9.2: Psycholinguistics (F) > Flashcards

Flashcards in File 9.0-9.2: Psycholinguistics (F) Deck (43)
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1

psycholinguistics

the study of the acquisition, storage, comprehension, and production of language.

2

neurolinguistics

The study of language and the physical brain.

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The 5 lobes

Temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellum

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Temporal lobe

Is associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli.

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frontal lobe

Higher thinking and language production

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occipital lobe

Many aspects of vision

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parietal lobe

Least involved with language perception and production.

8

Corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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cortex

A membrane covering the brain, it is thought that the cortex makes humans able to use language or math.

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Where are the language centers contained?

Most are contained in the cortex

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What are the different language regions?

- Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)
- Superior temporal gyrus (STG)
- Sylvian parietotemporal area (SPT)
- Middle and inferior temporal gyri (MTG/ITG)
(See figure page 599)

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What are the bumps and indentations on the cortex called?

Bumps are called gyri (or gyrus singular) and the indentations are called fissures.

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The Sylvian Fissure

separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe

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Auditory cortex

Early processing of sounds is done here in both the left and right hemisphere in the superior temporal gyrus

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Middle and inferior temporal gyri

The processing of word meaning and conceptual representations happens here

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Sylvian parietotemporal area

is involved in converting auditory and phonological representations into articulatory-motor (sometimes grouped with the posterior STG and called Wernicke’s area)

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Wernicke's area

Sylvian parietotemporal area grouped with the posterior STG is called Wernicke’s area

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Inferior frontal gyrus/broca's area

organizing the articulatory patterns of language and directing the motor cortex, which controls movement, when we want to talk. Broca’s area also seems to control the use of inflectional morphemes, like the plural and past tense markers, and function words, like determiners and prepositions

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Angular gyrus

This area, located between the SPT/Wernicke’s area and the visual cortex, converts visual stimuli into linguistic stimuli (and vice versa). The angular gyrus allows us to match the spoken form of a word with the object it describes, as well as with the written form of the word

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Visual cortex

Area of the brain located in the posterior occipital lobe of each hemisphere; responsible for receiving and interpreting visual stimuli

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White matter

pathways that are composed of bundles of nerve cells

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arcuate fasciculus

Path between STG and SPG, phonetic information (broca's)

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Ventral pathway

connecting the STG and MTG/ITG with the IFG runs instead via the extreme capsule
interprets information received from arcuate fasciculus; transmits articulatory information to motor cortex

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MTG/ITG path

activated when accessing the lexicon; interprets lexical entry

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Motor cortex

directs movement of muscles for articulation

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Lateralization

each of the brain’s hemispheres is responsible for different cognitive functions

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Neural plasticity

The ability of the brain to adapt to damage and retrain regions

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contralateral

the right side of the body is controlled by the left hemisphere, while the left side of the body is controlled by the right hemisphere

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Aphasic

Unable to perceive or produce fluent language

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dichotic listening task

a task in which participants in an experiment are presented with two messages simultaneously, one to each ear, and are instructed to repeat back the words from only one of them