File 3.0-3.3, 3.5: Phonology (F) Flashcards Preview

Introduction to linguistics > File 3.0-3.3, 3.5: Phonology (F) > Flashcards

Flashcards in File 3.0-3.3, 3.5: Phonology (F) Deck (40)
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1

phonetic inventories

the sounds that are produced as part of the language

2

suprasegmental features

A phonetic characteristic of speech sounds, such as length, intonation, tone, or stress, that “rides on top of” segmental features. Must usually be identified by comparison to the same feature on other sounds or strings of sounds

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phonotactic constraints

These restrictions on possible combinations of sounds are known as phonotactic constraints.

4

sound substitution

Speakers use sounds of their native language to replace non-native sounds when pronouncing the words of a foreign language.

5

aspiration

A puff of air that comes out with a certain sound.

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non-aspiration

A sound produced without excessive aspiration (air).

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noncontrastive

Interchanging the two sounds does not result in a change of meaning

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contrastive

Replacing one sound with another changes the word's meaning.
Contrastive distribution is simply a case in which the two sounds occur in the same phonetic environment, and using one rather than the other changes the meaning of the word

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phoneme

A set of speech sounds that are perceived to be variants of the same sound

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allophone

Each member of a particular phoneme set.
That is, the various ways that a phoneme is pronounced are called allophones (t, th, etc.)

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How can you find out the distribution of a phone?

To look at the phonetic environments in which it occurs.

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phonetic environments

The environment in which the sound can be found. You look at the sounds that come before and after it in a word

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free variation

The use of a sound that can be heard freely without any constrictions.

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minimal pairs

A minimal pair is defined as two words (with different meanings) whose pronunciations differ by exactly one phoneme (sound).

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complementary distribution

Two complementary parts of something make up a whole. Two sounds that cannot appear in the same environment. If sounds are in complementary distribution, they are therefore considered to be allophones of the same phoneme.

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conditioning environment

In which environment a certain sound can appear. C _ D, C stands for the sound that comes before the word, D for after.

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flapping

It means that a /t/ is pronounced as a [ɾ]

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natural class

Is a group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property, to the exclusion of all other sounds in that language. (/t/ and /d/)

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sibilants

Segments that have a high-pitched, hissing sound quality. The natural class of sibilants in English is [s, ʃ, t͡ʃ, z, ʒ, d͡ʒ]

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obstruents

Obstruents are produced with an obstruction of the airflow.

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sonorants

Sonorants are produced with a relatively open passage for the airflow.

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assimilation

Cause a sound to become more like a neighboring sound.

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palatalization

Palatalization belongs with the assimilation, but is a bit more specific. A consonant becomes like a neighboring palatal. Like 'Did you?' becomes [dɪdʒu]

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vowel harmony

This is a type of long-distance assimilation. It causes all vowels in a word to harmonize or agree in some property such as rounding or backness.

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dissimilation

Dissimilation is the opposite of assimilation. It causes two close or adjacent sounds to become less similar.

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insertion

Cause a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word. Like with: strength [stɹɛŋθ] to [stɹɛŋkθ]

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deletion

Eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level.

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metathesis

Metathesis changes the order of sounds, for example to make words easier to pronounce.

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strengthening/fortition

Strengthening or fortition makes sounds stronger.

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aspiration

A form of strengthening or fotition, that adds aspiration to the beginning of a stressed syllable.