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Flashcards in Final all Drugs Deck (91):
1

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPAR-a) agonists

Upregulate apo A-I, A-II
Downregulate apo C-III

lowers LDL

increases HDL

Gemfibrozal

Fenofibrate

"fibrates"

2

HMGcoA reductase inhibitors

upregulate hepatocyte LDL receptors

decrease triglycerides

statins

3

Decreases catabolism of apo AI and reduces VLDL secretion

Niacin

4

Binds bile acids in gut --> excretion

Liver takes more cholesterol out of circulation to make more bile

lower LDL

Colestipol

5

Blocks sterol transporter NPC1L1 in intestine brush border

decreases cholesterol absorbed

lower LDL

Ezetimibe

6

irreversible COX I and II inhibitor. Stops the synthesis of thromboxane, which is responsible for platelet activation.

aspirin

***Baby ASA preferentially inhibits TXA production, leading to an overall vasodilatory effect (PGI2 is vasodilatory and is not inhibited at 81mg dose).

7

o MOA: activation of K+ channels and inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels

Used for converting SVT

Adenosine

8

 Inhibits Na+/K+/ATPase pump

reverses NCX pump --> increased intracellular Ca2+

increased contractility, SV, CO

decreased HR

Digoxin

9

selective peripheral vascular Ca2+ blockers

relax VSM

risk of reflex tachycardia

dihydropyridines

"---pine"

10

selective myocardial Ca2+ blocker

reduce mycordial O2 demand

Tx: angina, arrhythmias

Verapamil

11

blocks both VSM and myocardial Ca2+ channels

Diltiazem

12

Binds P.B.P. and blocks transpeptidation of
peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.

Ceftriaxone

13

Binds D-ala-D-alanine to prevent NAM/NAG-peptide subunits into peptidoglycan. BLOCKS TRANSGLYCOSYLATION

Vancomycin

14

Beta-Lactam: Binds P.B.P. and blocks transpeptidation of
peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.

Penicillin G

15

AMINO-Beta-Lactam: Binds P.B.P. and blocks transpeptidation of peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.

Amoxicilin

16

Converts plasminogen to plasmin thus increasing breakdown of fibrin clots

t-PA

Alteplase

17

Acts on mu receptors in three locations

analgesic

Morphine

18

Forms free radical NO

Nitroglycerin

19

Blocks ADP receptors on platelets

inhibits platelet activation

Clopidogrel

20

increases Activity of antithrombin III

Heparin

21

Binds GPIIb/IIIa receptor on activated platelets

inhibits binding of fibrinogen

Eptifibitide

22

Suppresses RAAS system by inhibiting conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.

lisinopril

enalapril

ACE inhibitors

23

Same mechanism as nitroglycerine -- longer half life

isosorbide dinitrate

24

Increases NO synthesis in endothelium.

Hydralazine

25

Inhibits NKCC2

diuretic

Furosamide

26

Blocks aldosterone action.

Diuretic

Spirinolactone

Eplerenone

27

Alteplase

thrombolytic

plaminogen --> plasmin

28

NTG

vasodilator

29

Clopidogrel

anti-coagulant

blocks ADP receptors

30

heparin

anti-coagulant

activates anti-thrombin III

31

Eptifibitide

anti-coagulant

binds GIIb-IIIa

32

Lisinopril

ACE inhibitor

33

Enalapril

ACE inhibitor

34

-statins

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

decrease LDL

35

Metoprolol

selective B-1 blocker

36

Propanolol

non-selective Beta blocker

37

Isosorbide dinitrate

long acting nitro

vasodilation

38

Hydralazine

increases NO

more effect on ARTERIOLES

39

furosamide

diuretic

inhibits NKCC pump

40

eplerenone

angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)

41

spironolactone

ARB

42

Digoxin

Na+/K+/ATPase pump inhibitor

increased intracellular Ca2+ --> inc. contractility

decreased HR

43

cocaine

blocks NE reuptake

axoplasmic pump

44

Imipramine

blocks NE reuptake

axoplasmic pump

45

Reserpine

inhibits accumulation of catecholamines in vesicles

46

Guanethidine

releases NE from vesicles --> degraded by MAO

47

pargyline

MAO inhibitor

48

tyramine

releases catecholamines

cheese, wine, beer

49

dobutamine

selective B-1 agonist

positive inotrope

used in CHF/MI with HF

50

dopamine

positive inotrope at B-1

vasodilation in renal and mesenteric vessels at low dose

a1 agonist at high dose

used in shock

51

phenylephrine

a1 agonist

52

metaproterenol

B-2 selective agonist

bronchodilation

53

terbutaline

B-2 selective agonist

delays labor

54

albuterol

selective B-2 agonist

bronchodilation

55

ritodrine

selective B-2 agonist

delays labor

56

salmeterol

selective B-2 agonist

bronchodilation

57

isoproterenol

non-selective Beta agonist

vasodilates at B-2

tachycardia at B-1

58

norepinephrine

vasoconstricts at a1

increased HR at B-1

59

epinephrine

vasoconstricts at a1

bronchodilation at B-2

increased HR at B-1

60

terazosin

a1 blocker

61

amphetamine

releases NE from nerves

62

ephedrine

releases NE

indirect activation of a1, B1

also vasodilates at B2 (direct effect)

63

pseudoephedrine

similar to ephedrine

64

guanadrel

releases NE from vesicles for degradation by MAO

65

procaiamide

Class IA

slows upstroke of AP (Na+ blocker), prolongs ERP (non-specific K+ blockade)
can cause:

torsades

lupus

66

quinidine

Class IA

has anti-muscarinic (anti-PNS) effects

can cause:

torsades

67

disopyramide

Class IA

NO loading doses --> precipitates HF

68

Lidocaine

Class IB

treats Vtach and Vfib after cardioversion

NO prophlaxis

69

mexiletine

Class IB

oral version of lidocaine

chronic pain too

70

Tocainide

Class IB

lidocaine analog

71

flecainide

Class IC

slow unblocking kinetics (but does not prolong AP or QT)

72

propafenone

Class IC

weak Beta blocker

73

moricizine

Class IC

not sold in US so prob not on test

74

propanolol

non-selective Beta blocker

don't give if asthma (B2 block--> bronch spasm)

treats SVT w/o AV blocks (can exacerbate)

75

Acebutolol

non-selective Beta blocker

treats HTN and SVTs

76

esmolol

short acting, selective B-1 blocker

77

sotalol

Beta blocker at low dose

K+ antiarrhythmic at high dose

78

enoxaparin

low molecular weight heparin

79

amiodarone

Class III (and I, II, IV)

treats Vtach, Vfib, Afib, Aflutter

PULM toxicity

LOOONG half life

iodine buildup

80

dofetilide

Class III

very selective K+ blocker

Contraindicated in long QT, bradycardia, hypokalemia

81

ibutilide

Class III

K+ blocker and slow inward Na+ ACTIVATOR

82

dihydropyridines

Class IV

smooth muscle Ca2+ channel selective

**reflex tachycardia, don't use in angina

83

verapimil

Class IV

cardio selective Ca2+ blocker--preference for frequently firing tissue

treats angina and arrhythmia

reduces myocardial O2 demand

don't use in WPW!!!

84

Diltiazem

Class IV

BOTH cardiac depressant and vasodilatory

no reflex tachycardia

85

adenosine

activates K+
inhibits Ca2+
hyperpolarization and suppression of Ca2+ dependent APs (SA and AV tissue)

used for SVTs

don't use in 2 and 3 AV block

86

nifedipine

Class IV dihydropyridine

vaso seletive Ca2+ blockage

used in angina

also HTN

87

gemfibrozil

PPAR-a agonist

decreases VLDL secretion

88

fenofibrate

PPAR-a agonist

decreases VLDL secretion

89

niacin

Blocks adipocyte lipolysis.

Decreases catabolism of apo AI and reduces VLDL secretion.

90

colestipol

binds bile acid

91

ezetimibe

Blocks sterol transporter NPC1L1 in intestinal brush border