midterm drugs, NT's, and receptors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in midterm drugs, NT's, and receptors Deck (42):
1

Pargyline

MAO inhibitor

2

Cocaine

NE reuptake inhibitor

potentiates sympathetic respone

3

Imipramine

NE reuptake inhibitor

tricyclic antidepressant

potentiates sympathetic respone

4

Tyramine

reverses axoplasmic pumps

more NE in synapse

5

amphetamine

reverses axoplasmic pumps

more NE in synapse

6

ephedrine

reverses axoplasmic pumps

more NE in synapse

7

Reserpine

blocks vesicular accumulation of NE

decreases available NE

8

guanethidine/guanadrel

releases NE from vesicles

depletes NE

9

epinephrine MOA (receptors):

agonist of a1, a2, B1, B2

B > a, but alpha effects predominate at high doses

10

Isoproterenol

activates B1, B2

11

Phenylephrine

activates a1

12

Dobutamine

activates B1

13

Albuterol

activates B2

bronchial SM relaxation (acute exacerbation)

14

metaproterenol

activates B2

bronchial SM relaxation

15

ritodrine

B2 agonist

delays labor

16

terbutaline

B2 agonist

delay labor

17

salmeterol

B2 agonist

long acting asthma prophylaxis

18

B2 receptors have higher affinity for Epi or NE?

Epi

B1 is about equal

19

Binds to penicillin binding proteins and inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis. Broad spectrum for Gram negative organisms.

Ceftriaxone

20

Forms H-bonds with D-ala-D-alanine and prevents the incorporation of NAM/NAG-peptide subunits into peptidoglycan matrix. Broad spectrum for Gram positive organisms.

Vancomycin

21

Beta- lactam ring binds to DD-transpeptidase inhibiting cross-linking for remodeling of peptidoglycan. Inhibits transpeptidase. Narrow spectrum of Gram positive, aerobic organisms.

Penicillin G

22

Converts plasminogen to plasmin --> degrades clots

tPA (alteplase)

23

Inhibits COX1/TXA2 --> inhibiting platelet aggregation

aspirin

24

Binds to opioid receptors in the CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering the perception of and response to pain; produces generalized CNS depression.

morphine

25

forms free radical nitric oxide. In smooth muscle, activates guanylate cyclase which increases guanosine 3’5’ monophosphate (cGMP) leading to dephosphorylation of myosin light chains and smooth muscle relaxation.

vasodilator effect on the peripheral veins and arteries with more prominent effects*** on the veins.

NTG

26

competitive inhibitor of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa preventing the binding of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and other adhesive ligands to the GP IIb/IIIa receptor on activated platelets.

***works when ASA will not

Eptifibatide

27

inhibition of histamine at H2-receptors of the gastric parietal cells

ranitidine

28

Blocks ADP receptors on platelets → inhibits platelet activation

clopidogrel

29

↑ Activity of antithrombin III → inhibits thrombin (and others in coagulation cascade)→ blocks conversion of fibrinogen → fibrin = no clot ☺

heparin

30

Inhibit cholesterol synthesis.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

statins

31

Suppresses RAAS system by inhibiting conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. Net effects:
• Decreased Aldosterone release → Decreased Na reabsorption in kidney → decreased blood volume and preload

ACE inhibitors

names end in "pril"

32

specifically blocks Beta1 receptors
• Main activity on heart → decrease heart rate and contractility thus decreasing myocardial oxygen demand
• Decreases BP

metoprolol

***not in acute CHF....need to get fluid off first

33

non-specific (blocks Beta 1 and 2)

propanolol

34

Same mechanism as nitroglycerine

***longer half life

isosorbide dinitrate

35

Increases NO synthesis in endothelium.

Higher selectivity for arterioles--> decreased afterload

hydralazine

36

Inhibits NKCC2 (the luminal symporter in thick ascending limb of loop of Henle) → ↓ reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- → Increased Na+ & water excretion → ↓Blood Volume →↓Preload

furosemide

37

Blocks aldosterone action. Net effects:
• Decreases Na reabsorption in kidney → decreases blood volume and preload

spironolactone

eplerenone

38

Inhibits Na/K ATPase:
• Increased Na intracellular concentration
• Increased Na/Ca co-transporter activity
• Increased intracellular Ca++
• INCREASED CONTRACTILIY (positive ionotrope)
ALSO – prolongs nodal action potentials thus DECREASING HEART RATE

digoxin

***high toxicity--used in refractory acute CHF

39

AMINO-Beta-Lactam: Binds P.B.P. and blocks transpeptidation of peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.

amoxixillin

40

beta-lactamase inhibitor

clavulanate

add to amoxiccilin

41

contraindication for tPA?

endocarditis

42

purpose of B-blockers in MI tx?

reduce ischemia (decreases myocardial oxygen demand)