Final Exam Practice Questions- From TA's Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam Practice Questions- From TA's Deck (37):
1

An isolated kidney has been maintained at normal perfusion and renal arterial BP. What happens at the AFFERENT arterioles when exposed to a sudden INCREASE in renal arterial pressure?

Vasoconstriction and DECREASED secretion of renin

2

When would you see an elevated [urine protein] : [urine creatinine] ratio?

Glomerulopathy

3

Where is water reabsorbed in the kidney?

Proximal tubule
MCD
Distal tubule
DLOH

4

Where is water NOT reabsorbed in the kidney?

ALOH

5

Which local tissue factor does NOT promote vasodilation?

Gastrin

6

Which local tissue factors DO promote vasodilation?

K+
CO2
H+

7

The G-cell secretion of gastrin ________ in response to AA in the lumen of the glandular stomach.

The G-cell secretion of gastrin INCREASES in response to AA in the lumen of the glandular stomach.

8

What is a potent stimulus for duodenal secretion of CCK? What is the potent response?

Stimulus: Increased duodenal luminal [FFA]
Response: Gallbladder contraction

9

What is an incretin?

Incretins are polypeptide hormones that stimulate B-cell secretion of insulin

10

In general, what is the most significant way secondary secretions differ from primary secretions (produced at acini)?

Cl- is LOWER and HCO3- is HIGHER in secondary secretions

11

What would cause the greatest INCREASE in the secretory activity of pancreatic acini?

Increased secretion of CCK (by small intestine) AND
Increased secretion of ACh (by efferent neurons at pancreatic acini)

12

Ruminal motility ________ as the luminal VFA increases.

Ruminal motility DECREASES as the luminal VFA increases.

13

True or false: Receptors for CCK are found in the GI Tract and Brain.

True

14

True or false: Elevated plasma pancreatic enzyme concentration may be a result of Kidney Disease

True

15

True or false: Since mast cells secrete histamine, mast cell tumors can cause GI Tract ulcerations.

True

16

What are the effects of CCK secretion?

Inhibition of glandular stomach activity
Contraction of gallbladder
Stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells
Stimulation of pancreatic ductular cells

17

What happens when an animal is suddenly brought to high altitude?

Respiratory ALKALOSIS and
Metabolic ACIDOSIS (from lactic acidosis due to hypoxia)

18

Metabolic Acidosis causes a/an ________ anion gap.

Metabolic acidosis causes an INCREASED anion gap

19

What percent of filtered plasma is reabsorbed by the PCT?

65% of filtered plasma is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney

20

Pulmonary artery [HCO3-] is __________ that pulmonary vein [HCO3-].

The concentration of HCO3- in the pulmonary ARTERY is GREATER than its concentration in the pulmonary vein.

21

Secretion of ADH ______ subsequent to hemorrhage.

ADH secretion INCREASES after hemorrhage.

22

What is the most potent secretagogue at the pancreatic acinar cell?

CCK is the most potent secretagogue at pancreatic acinar cells. It has a potent trophic effect here.

23

What does GIP do at the pancreas?

GIP stimulates release of insulin by the B-cells in the islets of langerhaans.

24

The _______ is the major site for production of Unconjugated bilirubin

The SPLEEN is the major site for UNconjugated bilirubin synthesis.

25

"Nature's antacid" is ______. Why?

SECRETIN is also known as "nature's antacid".

26

What does SECRETIN do?

Secretin DECREASES the release of gastrin and
DECREASES the secretion of HCl acid at the stomach.
It also INCREASES the secretion of HCO3- in the jejunum to dilute H+

27

What substance has the greatest concentration of organic molecules?

BILE has the greatest concentration of organic molecules.

28

What can increase acid secretion by gastric pancreatic cells?

Histamine, Gastrin, and ACh

29

What will NOT increase acid secretion by gastric pancreatic cells?

Epinephrine

30

How are PRIMARY secretions modified by salivary, pancreatic, and ductular epithelium?

Bicarb is added to primary secretions by salivary, pancreatic, and ductular epithelium.

31

What can cause an elevation of plasma [bile acid] concentration?

Cholestasis (everything backs up, BA leaks out)
Portosystemic shunt (blood not getting to liver, cannot filter out BA)
Liver Disease

32

What is the normal plasma value for [Na+]?

140 mM

33

What is the normal plasma value for [Cl-]?

100 mM

34

What is the normal plasma value for [K+]?

4 mM

35

What is the normal plasma value for [HCO3-]?

24 mEq

36

What is the normal plasma value for PCO2?

40 mmHg

37

What is the normal plasma value for PO2?

98 mmHg