Flashcards in Practice Test OCTOBER 2012: Test 2 Deck (39):
Which osmolyte contributes most to the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid?
What is normal plasma osmolality for a normal domestic animal?
You have injected hypertonic saline IV into an otherwise normal cat. Which is a normal consequence of this action?
a. The animal becomes azotemic and USG increases
b. Plasma and interstitial osmolalities increase and intracellular osmolality decreases
c. Plasma and interstitial volumes increase and intracellular osmolality decreases
d. The animal becomes azotemic and USG remains constant
e. The animal becomes azotemic and USG decreases
c. The plasma and interstitial VOLUMES increase and intracellular OSMOLALITY decreases
What best characterizes direct effects of epinephrine on kidney function?
Epinephrine promotes decreased flow of water from plasma to Bowman's space, and it promotes an increase in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed by the nephron
What is the kidney's autoregulatory response to hemorrhage at the brachial artery?
Increased plasma [ADH] and increased plasma [angiotensin II] result in a decreased GFR
Which is a cause of post-renal azotemia?
a. Hemorrhage into the upper GI tract
b. Dioctophyme renale in a ureter
d. Reabsorption of water from the urinary bladder and/or urethra
e. Left-sided heart failure
b. Dioctophyme renale in a ureter would cause post-renal azotemia
What happens to SNGFR (single nephron glomerular filtration rate) in an animal once one of its kidney's is removed?
T or F: Increased turnover death of tubular cells of the nephron results in an increased protein:creatinine excretion ratio
T or F: Lower urinary tract disease results in an increased protein:creatinine excretion ratio
T or F: Intravascular hemolysis results in an increased protein:creatinine excretion ratio
T or F: Glomerulopathy results in an increased protein:creatinine excretion ratio
T or F: Hemorrhage into the GI tract results in an increased protein:creatinine excretion ratio
Inhibition of phospholipase A2 results in _________ production of cytoprotective prostaglandins, and _________ production of inflammatory prostaglandins.
It results in *decreased* production of cytoprotective prostaglandins and *decreased* production of
When compared to its concentration in plasma, what is the maximum possible concentration of a waste molecule in urine?
More than 200 times more concentrated
T or F: in normal animals, hypersthenuria is far more common than isosthenuria over the course of a normal day
T or F: isosthenuria always indicates improper kidney function
T or F: hyposthenuria always indicates improper kidney function
T or F: postrenal azotemia is a synonym for hypersthenuria
T or F: hypersthenuria indicates the presence of osmolytes that are present in urine and absent in plasma
Organic molecules Substance X and Substance Y are freely filterable. Substance X is secreted by the PCT. Substance Y is not secreted. Neither substance is reabsorbed. Which of the two molecules exists at higher concentration in filtrate entering the dLOH?
Either Substance X or Substance Y, depending on their CONCENTRATIONS IN PLASMA
What is the Tm for glucose reabsorption in domestic animals?
Equal to GFR
Many drugs are bound by plasma protein, yet many of these drugs are normally found in urine. How can this be?
“plasma protein bound” does not mean that every single molecule of the drug is bound by plasma protein
Virtually all reabsorptive and secretory function of the nephron is ultimately attributable to the activity of what?
Basolateral Na+-K+ ATPase
Each of the following is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule EXCEPT
d. Creatinine is NOT reabsorbed at the proximal tubule
T or F: Hypersthenuria is present in an animal if it is excreting a urine with a USG of 1.013 or greater.
T or F: Something is wrong with renal and/or urinary tract function if the urine protein:urine creatinine excretion ratio is greater than 0.0.
T or F: Something is wrong with renal and/or urinary tract function if the urine glucose:urine creatinine excretion ratio is greater than 0.0.
T or F: Glucose could not be reabsorbed from filtrate if Na+ was not reabsorbed from filtrate.
T or F: Iohexol clearance increases 100% if plasma [iohexol] is increased 100% via IV injection.
T or F: On a daily basis, more creatinine is cleared from plasma via secretion than by filtration.
T or F: Even in the severely dehydrated animal, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the greatest percentage of filtered water.
T or F: Aquaporins are present in the aLOH of juxtamedullary nephrons only when an animal is dehydrated.
T or F: In the normal animal, glucose should never be present in filtrate entering the aLOH.
T or F: In the normal animal, glucose should never be present in filtrate leaving the aLOH.
T or F: Normal plasma [glucose] x normal GFR = Tm for glucose reabsorption.
T or F: The proximal tubule is the major site of K+ and HCO3- reabsorption in the nephron.
T or F: (GFR) x (concentration of inulin in urine) = (Urine flow) x (concentration of inulin in plasma)
T or F: Molecules that promote vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels and molecules that promote vasodilation of renal blood vessels are produced in the kidney.