Final: Fracture fixation- pins, ESF, screws, plates, interlocking nails Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final: Fracture fixation- pins, ESF, screws, plates, interlocking nails Deck (95)
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1

Which of the following is not a commonly used descriptor for fractures? 

Displacement 

Reparability 

Communication with external environment

Reparability 

2

What are the indications for external coaptation (closed reduction) of a fracture?

Below elbow or stifle

Bone will be stable after reduction

Fracture expected to heal quickly and without disease (i.e. young patient)

Small dogs or cats 

 

E.g. Greenstick, Intact periosteal sleeve, Impaction fractures

3

What type of ESF is unilateral and uniplanar? What aspect of the tibia is this placed? Femur? Humerus? Radius?

Type 1A

Tibia= Medial

Femur, Humerus= Lateral (usually w/IM pin)

Radius= Cranial and medial

4

How long does an oblique fracture have to be for it to be considered 'long'?

>2 x diameter of bone

5

Under which forces is an oblique fracture stable and unstable?

Unstable in compression

Less unstable than transverse in bending, rotation

Stable in torsion

6

What classification of open fracture involves a lot fo soft tissue trauma but with enough tissue for closure?

Type 3A

7

Classify this fracture 

Simple mid-diaphyseal transverse fracture of the femur 

8

What are postitive profile threaded pins?

The threads of the pins stick out beyond the core/base of the pin

9

What are the indications for full cerclage wire? When is the use counterindicated?

Long oblique or spiral fractures (fx line at least 2x bone diameter)

C/O'd: Short oblique fractres, fractures with more than 3 segments, unreducible fractures 

10

What functions do these plates serve?

A= Compression

B= Neutralization 

C= Holding collpased epithysis in position

11

What are advantages and disadvantages of closed reduction?

(+): Preserves soft tissue and blood supply, less risk of infection, decreased operating time

(-): Difficult to obtain accurate reduction

12

What types of fractures can be compressed by a plate?

Transverse

Nearly transverse

Any other type will shear

13

In what fashion must interlocking pins be placed? What type of fracture can they be used for? What forces do they resist?

Normograde

Mid-diaphyseal fractures  of humerus, femur and tibia

Resist bending, shearing and rotation

14

3 or more pieces upgrades a simple fracture to a _____ fracture.

Comminuted

15

What is the most common cause of fractures in small animals?

HBC

16

T/F: The Salter Harris fracture classification system can only be used in the bones of young patients. 

True

17

What type of plate is used here?

Bridging (Buttress)

18

What are the 3 methods to obtain fragment apposition and potentially compression of a short oblique fracture?

Lag screws 

Skewer pin

Hemicerclage wire 

In addition to something else, not alone!

19

What complication fo you risk if you were to place an ESF into the humeral diaphysis blindly?

Nerve or vessel damage (Specifically the radial nerve)

Which is why you don't do that

20

T/F: ESF can only be used for open fractures. 

False

21

What type of fixation is ideal for this situation?

Interlocking pins

22

What type of plate is this?

LC-DCP

23

Which type of plate as a neutralizing or bridging application but does nnot compress a fracture? What is it often combined with?

String of Pearls 

Rods/IM pin

24

What type of pin is a Steinmann pin?

Intramedullary

25

What classification of open fracture involves exposed bone and stripped periosteum but no damage to arterial blood supply?

Type 3B

26

What type of plate can you place on an oblique or comminuted fracture?

Neutralizing plate 

All screws neutrally positioned and same diameter 

27

Does compressing a fracture using a bone plate stimulate bone healing and provide osteoinduction?

No

It provides a stable mechanical environment

28

_______ fractures go in the same direction as the long axis of the bone. 

Fissure

29

What type(s) of plate(s) can be used as an alterative to cross pinning in some fractures?

L or T plates

30

What are advantages to open fracture reduction? Disadvantages?

Direct visualization of the fracture to facilitate reconstruction

Allows placement of implant

Allows load sharing

Bone grafts

(-): Increased surgical time, increased soft tissue trauma and compromised blood supply, increased risk of infection