Which of the following is not a commonly used descriptor for fractures?
Communication with external environment
What are the indications for external coaptation (closed reduction) of a fracture?
Below elbow or stifle
Bone will be stable after reduction
Fracture expected to heal quickly and without disease (i.e. young patient)
Small dogs or cats
E.g. Greenstick, Intact periosteal sleeve, Impaction fractures
What type of ESF is unilateral and uniplanar? What aspect of the tibia is this placed? Femur? Humerus? Radius?
Femur, Humerus= Lateral (usually w/IM pin)
Radius= Cranial and medial
How long does an oblique fracture have to be for it to be considered 'long'?
>2 x diameter of bone
Under which forces is an oblique fracture stable and unstable?
Unstable in compression
Less unstable than transverse in bending, rotation
Stable in torsion
What classification of open fracture involves a lot fo soft tissue trauma but with enough tissue for closure?
Classify this fracture
Simple mid-diaphyseal transverse fracture of the femur
What are postitive profile threaded pins?
The threads of the pins stick out beyond the core/base of the pin
What are the indications for full cerclage wire? When is the use counterindicated?
Long oblique or spiral fractures (fx line at least 2x bone diameter)
C/O'd: Short oblique fractres, fractures with more than 3 segments, unreducible fractures
What functions do these plates serve?
C= Holding collpased epithysis in position
What are advantages and disadvantages of closed reduction?
(+): Preserves soft tissue and blood supply, less risk of infection, decreased operating time
(-): Difficult to obtain accurate reduction
What types of fractures can be compressed by a plate?
Any other type will shear
In what fashion must interlocking pins be placed? What type of fracture can they be used for? What forces do they resist?
Mid-diaphyseal fractures of humerus, femur and tibia
Resist bending, shearing and rotation
3 or more pieces upgrades a simple fracture to a _____ fracture.
What is the most common cause of fractures in small animals?
T/F: The Salter Harris fracture classification system can only be used in the bones of young patients.
What type of plate is used here?
What are the 3 methods to obtain fragment apposition and potentially compression of a short oblique fracture?
In addition to something else, not alone!
What complication fo you risk if you were to place an ESF into the humeral diaphysis blindly?
Nerve or vessel damage (Specifically the radial nerve)
Which is why you don't do that
T/F: ESF can only be used for open fractures.
What type of fixation is ideal for this situation?
What type of plate is this?
Which type of plate as a neutralizing or bridging application but does nnot compress a fracture? What is it often combined with?
String of Pearls
What type of pin is a Steinmann pin?
What classification of open fracture involves exposed bone and stripped periosteum but no damage to arterial blood supply?
What type of plate can you place on an oblique or comminuted fracture?
All screws neutrally positioned and same diameter
Does compressing a fracture using a bone plate stimulate bone healing and provide osteoinduction?
It provides a stable mechanical environment
_______ fractures go in the same direction as the long axis of the bone.
What type(s) of plate(s) can be used as an alterative to cross pinning in some fractures?
L or T plates
What are advantages to open fracture reduction? Disadvantages?
Direct visualization of the fracture to facilitate reconstruction
Allows placement of implant
Allows load sharing
(-): Increased surgical time, increased soft tissue trauma and compromised blood supply, increased risk of infection