Kidney and Ureters (E1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kidney and Ureters (E1) Deck (46)
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What is the arterial supply of the kidney? Venous?

Renal artery (arises form aorta between cranial and caudal mesenteric A's) then BRANCHES into dorsal and ventral at hilus (sometimes more than 1 renal A on left side)

Renal vein (empty into caudal vena cava)


What are the most common nephroliths?

Most common: Calcium oxalate

2nd: Struvite


What clinical signs are associated with nephroliths?

Can be absent or non specific





(Uremia, Hydronephrosis)


How are nephroliths diagnosed?

Survey rads



What parameters are used to determine the best management for nephroliths?

Type of calculi

Anatomical location

Clinical effects


When is surgery for nephroliths indicated? What is indicated before surgery (tests/examinations)?

Sx indicated if OBSTRUCTED or INFECTION (pyelonephritis) associated with the calculi is present

Prior to surgery: Check renal function - excretory urography, GFR, Ultrasound


A ______ is the excision of the kidney. A ________ is a surgical incision into the kidney. A _______ is th creation of a permanent fistula leading to the renal pelvis.

NephrECTOMY - Excision 

NephrOTOMY - incision (cuT)

NephroSTOMY - fiSTula


What techniques can be used to perform a renal biopsy?

1. Blind percutaneous

2. Percutaneous, US guided (PREFERRED)

3. Laproscopic

4. Keyhole abdominal incision

5. Wedge or incisional (via ventral midline ceiliotomy) (most diagnostic, requires vessel occlusion)

(Best if using spring-loaded biopsy needle (Monopty biopsy needle) or biopsy gun, manual devices (e.g. Tru-Cut) not as good b/c can produce fragmented samples)


What type of incision do you make to perform a nephrolithotomy? What organs must you retract to visualize the kidneys?

Ventral midline celiotomy

Mesocolon (left) or mesoduodenum (right)


To isolate the renal vessels, what will you need to dissect?

Retroperitoneal fat


When performing a nephrolithotomy, what instruments can you use to occlude the renal vessels? How long can they remain occluded?

Rumel Tourniquet (red rubber catheter, umbilical tape and hemostat)

Bulldog vascular clamps (very atraumatic if placed gently)

Satinsky clamp


20 minutes


When performing a nephrolithotomy, what type of incision do you make to open the kidney? How do you close the surgical site?


Suture-less closure (hold for 5 minutes, then suture only the capsule) or

Horizontal mattress (Use absorbable suture like PDS or Vicryl)


When performing a nephrolithotomy, after removing the stone, what do you do next (3 things)?

Culture the renal pelvis

Flush the pelvis/ureter with heparinized saline

Catheterize the ureter to ensure patency


What are the advantages of pyelolithotomy over a nephrolithotomy? When is a pyelolithotomy indicated?

Does not require occulusion of the blood supply

Does not damage nephrons

Indicated when the calculi are in the renal pelvis and the pelvis and the proximal ureter(s) are dilated


What are the what are the treatment options for nephroliths (2 options for asymptomatic, 2 options for symptomatic)? Give advantages and disadvantages for each.

If the patient is asymptomatic:

1. Monitor renal function/renal imaging

(+) No iatrogenic damage from meds or sx

(-) Disease may progress

2. Medical mgmt

(+) No damage from surgery, no anesthesia

(-) Medication side effects, may eventually need sx anyway 

If symptomatic:

3. Surgery to remove stones

(+) Definitively removes the stone(s)

(-) Surgery causes nephron/kidney damage

4. Lithotripsy

(+) Shock waves break up stone(s) into pieces small enough to void, so avoid surgery

(-) Pieces may get stuck in and damage or occlude ureters/urethra, can damage kidney, not readily available


What type of incision do you make in the kidney for a pyelolithotomy?



What is the post-op management of a nephrolithotomy (what procedures, tests and treatments)?

Post-op rads (for calculi)

Monitor: PCV, CVP (hydration), urine output, renal enzymes and e-lytes

Provide diuresis (to maintain perfusion and minimize clot formation)


How can you diagnose renal trauma (3 ways)?

Contrast excretory urography


Exploratory sx


(Clinically, may have hematuria)


How would you treat/manage minor renal trauma? What is considered moderate trauma and how would you treat/manage it? What about major trauma?

Minor: Conservative treatment


Moderate: Capsular tears, extravasated fluid

            Tx- Repair w/Sx, use hemostatic agents, Omental patching


Major: Severe parenchymal or vascular damage

            Tx- Repair with Partial nephrectomy or Nephroureterectomy


What are the indication for performing a nephroureterectomy?

Severe infection

Severe trauma

Obstructive calculi w/persistent hydronephrosis




Although it is infrequently performed, when would you chose a partial nephrectomy? What are the advantages and disadvantaged vs a nephroureterectomy?

If the other kidney is compromised (decreased GFR), trauma or neoplasia is focal

(+) Preserves renal function

(-) Technically more difficult, higher incidence of post-op hemorrhage


In a partial nephrectomy, do you ligate the vessels together or separately? Where do you separate and ligate the ureter?


At vesicoureteral junction


What are the clinical signs associated with hydronephrosis, uni and bilateral? How is it diagnosed? How is it managed? What is the prognosis if the obstruction is <1 week? >4 weeks?

CS (unilateral): abdominal distention, palpable mass

CS (bilateral): severe azotemia, death

Dx: Abdominal rads, Excretory urogram, US

Mgmt: Eliminate cause, evaluate function; if non-functional or severely damaged parenchyma then SX- Nephroureterectomy

Prognosis <1week: complete resolution

                   >4weeks: MAY regain 25%


What are the clinical signs associated with pyelonephrosis? What are possible causes? How is it diagnosed? How is it managed?

CS: PUPD, lethargy, depression, fever, and anorexia

Causes: Complication of obstructive uropathy, ascending infection, hematogenous, post-parenchymal damage (can predispose)

Dx: US and IV pyelography

Mgmt: Nephrouretectomy if advanced


What are the clinical signs associated with the giant kidney worm (Dictophyma renale)? How is it diagnosed? How is it managed?

CS: Can be asymptomatic, or same as renal failure (due to worm causing parenchymal damage), vomiting when L3 penetrate stomach

Dx: Often on necropsy, exploratory sx, possibly see eggs in urine (urine sedimentation)

Mgmt: Nehrouretectomy, Nephrotomy


(Fun fact, usually affects RIGHT kidney or found in peritoneal cavity)


What is the most common benign kidney tumor in dogs and cats? Most common malignant kidney tumor? How are these tumors managed?

Benign: Renal adenoma

Malignant (more common): Renal cell carcinoma (dogs), Renal lymphoma (cats)


RCC: (Unilateral) nephrouretectomy and chemo, Exploratory laparotomy for metastatic lesions and biopsy (best method for biopsy)

Lymphoma: Usually not Sx unless tumor itself is causing an issue (e.g. obstruction), chemo


What do you call rapidly developing, malignant mixed tumors that arise from embryonal elements of the kidney? What is the typical signalment? How is it managed?


Young dogs and cats

Mgmt- if unilateral Nephrouretectomy, if bilateral could consider Partial nephrectomy (Nephron sparing sx); Chemo can be attempted

(Note: Metastasis VERY common, MST= 6 mo)


What are the clinical signs of renal neoplasia? How is it diagnosed?

CS (depend on type, size and location): hematuria (most common), abdominal distention, anorexia, weight loss, depression, abdominal pain

Dx -Best = IV Urography; abdominal palpation, abdominlal rads, US, CT, MRI


What parameters are used to determine if a renal biopsy is indicated? What are contraindications? What are the risks of performing this procedure?

Suspected neoplasia

Nephrotic syndrome

Renal cortex disease

Non-diagnosed ARF

(Only perform if benefits outway risks)

C/O's: coagulopathy (can cause fatal hemorrhage), hypertension, severe chronic hydronephrosis

Risks: Hemorrhage, Blood clot formation (can cause ureteral obstruction which can cause hydronephrosis)


What are indications for a feline renal transplant? Contraindications?

Irreversible ARF

Decompensated CRF



C/O's: viral positive (FeLV, FIV), cardiac disease, neoplasia, fractious