What are the 3 common causes of forelimb lameness?
What are the 5 common causes of hindlimb lameness?
What disease causes lameness in small breed dogs?
Legg Calve Perthese disease
What does CREPI stand for?
Range of motion
Effusion or swelling
For which joint is the Ortolani sign for?
What is the gold standard daignostic for joint evaluation? For which conditions can it be both diagnostic and therapeutic?
Cruciate disease and OCD
What is the most important factor for bone healing?
How long is the inflammatory stage of indirect bone healing? What forms first at the fracture site? What cell type is abundant at this time?
Clot (which releases osteoinductive growth factors to stimulate angiogenesis and bone formation)
During the repair stage of indirect bone healing the clot changes into ____________ by action of __________ cells and ________.
During the repair stage of indirect bone healing the clot changes into granulation tissue by action of mononuclear cells and fibroblasts.
How long does the repair stage of indirect bone healing approximately last?
What stage of indirect bone healing lasts the longest?
Remodeling stage (70% of total healing time)
Wolfe's Law governs the remodeling phase of indirect bone healing. Which cells are responsible for compression? Which for tension?
You know the drill
B: Granulation tissue
C: Connective tissue
D: Cancellous (bone)
What is the end result of Haversian remodeling?
Haversian remodeling occurs to eliminate the callus
What type of bone healing occurs without callus formation?
Which takes longer, direct or indirect bone healing?
(6-12 months for appropriate mechnical strength)
______ healing, a type of direct bone healing, results in lamellar bone oriented in normal axial direction?
In _____ healing, a type of direct bone healing, osteoblasts deposit laminar bone in the fracture gap perpendicular to the long axis.
Which is more stable if fractured, cancellous or cortical bone?
T/F: When cancellous bone heals, first the cortical shell closes and then the fracture site bridges over.
False, bridging occurs before the union of the cortical shell
Zone of hypertrophy or Zone of proliferation?
A fracture of this zone will heal by endochondral ossification
A fracture of this zone will heal by continued growth of physeal cartilage
Zone of proliferation will heal by endochondral ossification
Zone of hypertrophy will heal by continued growth of physeal cartilage
What type of implant may result in direct bone healing, but more likely indirect bone healing and hardly disturbs the blood supply?
What do you call recruitment of host mesenchymal cells to form new bone or osteogenesis?
What type of bone graft is the gold standard?
Cancellous bone autogenous graft
What can you do to increase the volume of a cancellous bone allograph graft?
Can mix it with an autograft
From which bones can you harvet a cortical bone autograph?
What does the term "Creeping substitution" mean?
When a cortical bone graft establishes itself osteoclasts move in and resorb bone followed by osteoblasts which lay down new bone
(this maintains the mechanical strength of the graft)
What type of graft provides immediate mecnical support, promotes osteogenesis, is osteoinductive and is an autogenous graft?
Cortical-Cancellous bone graft