Lab: Ortho exam, Bone healing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab: Ortho exam, Bone healing Deck (28)
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1

What are the 3 common causes of forelimb lameness?

Elbow dysplasia

OCD

Fractures

2

What are the 5 common causes of hindlimb lameness?

Hip dysplasia

Pelvic fractures

Other fractures

ACL rupture 

Patellar luxation

3

What disease causes lameness in small breed dogs?

Legg Calve Perthese disease

4

What does CREPI stand for?

Crepitus

Range of motion

Effusion or swelling

Pain

Instability

5

For which joint is the Ortolani sign for?

Hip

6

What is the gold standard daignostic for joint evaluation? For which conditions can it be both diagnostic and therapeutic?

Arthroscopy 

Cruciate disease and OCD

7

 What is the most important factor for bone healing?

 

 Blood supply

8

How long is the inflammatory stage of indirect bone healing? What forms first at the fracture site? What cell type is abundant at this time?

3-4 days

Clot (which releases osteoinductive growth factors to stimulate angiogenesis and bone formation)

Mast cells 

9

During the repair stage of indirect bone healing the clot changes into ____________ by action of __________ cells and ________.

During the repair stage of indirect bone healing the clot changes into granulation tissue by action of mononuclear cells and fibroblasts.

10

How long does the repair stage of indirect bone healing approximately last?

2 months

11

What stage of indirect bone healing lasts the longest?

Remodeling stage (70% of total healing time)

12

Wolfe's Law governs the remodeling phase of indirect bone healing. Which cells are responsible for compression? Which for tension?

Compression: Osteoblasts

Tension: Osteoclasts

13

You know the drill

A: Hematoma

B: Granulation tissue

C: Connective tissue

D: Cancellous (bone)

E: Bone 

 

14

What is the end result of Haversian remodeling?

Haversian remodeling occurs to eliminate the callus

15

What type of bone healing occurs without callus formation?

Direct

16

Which takes longer, direct or indirect bone healing?

Direct

(6-12 months for appropriate mechnical strength)

17

______ healing, a type of direct bone healing, results in lamellar bone oriented in normal axial direction?

Contact

18

In _____ healing, a type of direct bone healing, osteoblasts deposit laminar bone in the fracture gap perpendicular to the long axis. 

Gap

19

Which is more stable if fractured, cancellous or cortical bone?

Cancellous

20

T/F: When cancellous bone heals, first the cortical shell closes and then the fracture site bridges over. 

False, bridging occurs before the union of the cortical shell

21

Zone of hypertrophy or Zone of proliferation?

A fracture of this zone will heal by endochondral ossification 

A fracture of this zone will heal by continued growth of physeal cartilage

Zone of proliferation will heal by endochondral ossification 

Zone of hypertrophy will heal by continued growth of physeal cartilage​

22

What type of implant may result in direct bone healing, but more likely indirect bone healing and hardly disturbs the blood supply?

ESF

23

What do you call recruitment of host mesenchymal cells to form new bone or osteogenesis?

Osteoinduction

24

What type of bone graft is the gold standard?

Cancellous bone autogenous graft 

25

What can you do to increase the volume of a cancellous bone allograph graft?

Can mix it with an autograft

26

From which bones can you harvet a cortical bone autograph?

Ribs

Ulna

Fibula

Ilial wing

27

What does the term "Creeping substitution" mean?

When a cortical bone graft establishes itself osteoclasts move in and resorb bone followed by osteoblasts which lay down new bone 

(this maintains the mechanical strength of the graft)

28

What type of graft provides immediate mecnical support, promotes osteogenesis, is osteoinductive and is an autogenous graft?

Cortical-Cancellous bone graft