How can you treat hypotension?
- Decrease AX amount
- Gvie IVF bolus
- Drugs: Dopamine, Dobutamine, Ephedrine
What does the QRS complex on a ECG represent?
Ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization
What does a capnometer measure? What does a capnograph display?
ET CO2 vs Time
An arterial blood sample with have an SO2 > ___% while a venous sample will have SO2=____%. This is a good way to determine whether you have indeed obtained an arterial blood sample
What is the IVF rate for dogs under AX?
What does the p wave of an ECG reflect?
What are the 3 ways to measure BP (note which are direct and which are indirect and where they are placed)?
Direct and invasive via arterial catheter
- Facial, Transverse Facial artery in Horses
- Dorsal pedal, Metatarsal artery in Dogs
- Dorsal pedal, coccygeal in Cats
- Auricular artery in Cattle
- Median artery in Sheep/goats
- Real time BP measurement
Indirect - Oscillometric (vibrations from blood flow in artery)
- Gives MAP SAP and DAP
- Better in large animals
Indirect- Doppler (ultrasound)
- Dog on Palmar Digital A
- Sheep on Median A
- Horse on Tail
- Only SAP
- Cuff 30-40% limb circumference
- Underestimates BP in cats
What is the drug of choice for a hypotensive cat?
What is the normal temperature range for equids? Ovids?
List 3 drugs that can be used to induce dogs quickly? What drug is slower but has a wider safety margin?
Propofol, Alfaxalone, Etomidate
Which induction agent causes transient adrenal suppression?
What is the most common cause of A-a difference?
What are 2 effects of hypotension?
Compromised ability of kidney to maintain GFR
Compromises cerebral perfusion
What is the main indication for mechanical ventilation? List some other specific indications. What are the 2 biggest side effects caused by mechanical ventilation?
Main: Decreased PaCO2 if intubated, hypoxemia if getting <100%O2
Other: NM blockage, Thoracic sx, Controlling ICP, Chest wall/diaphragm trauma
Side effects: Hypotension, Hypercapnea
What does a F air cannister NOT absorb? When must it be discarded?
When it has gained 50g
What does the T wave on a ECG represent?
What are 2 types of re-breathing systems? What are 2 types of non-rebreathing systems?
Rebreathing: Circle/Y hose, Universal F
Non-rebreathing: Mapleson A-F, Bain (modified Mapleson D)
What are normal blood gas values for PaO2 (if getting 100% O2) and Lactate?
Lactate: 1-2 mmol/L
What are advantages and disadvantages of re-breathing systems?
(+): Requires lower fresh gas flow
(-): Higher resistance (valves), slower [AX] change, more components
What pressure do you use to check for leaks in the AX machine/system? How much leakage is acceptable (mL)?
Up to 300mL
SpO2 75%= ____PaO2
SpO2 88%= ____PaO2
SpO2 90% = ____PaO2 *Hypoxia upper limit*
SpO2 98% (breathing room air)= ____PaO2
SpO2 100%= ____PaO2
What do the letters A-E represent?
A: Start of expiration
B: Dead space gas replaced by alveolar gas
C-D: Pure alveolar gas
D: Start of inspiration (ETCO2)
E: Dilution of aleveolar gas by inspired fresh gas
How do you calculate bag size for small animals? Large animals?
Small: 15mL/kg x 6 = 90xBW (=ml)
Large: 30L bag or 20L ventilator capacity
What do each of these capnograph wave forms represent?
Orange/top: Normal breathing
Where can temperature measurements be taken?
What can cause decreased SaO2 and pO2?
In a re-breathing system, what is the O2 flow rate for animals <50kg (induction, maintenance, recovery)? >50kg?
<50kg: I and R 50-100
>50kg: I and R 20-50
What is normal EtCO2?
What does BP reflect?
What is the normal RR range for equids? Ovids?