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Flashcards in Lab: Anesthesia Quiz Deck (65)
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1

How can you treat hypotension?

  1. Decrease AX amount
  2. Gvie IVF bolus
  3. Drugs: Dopamine, Dobutamine, Ephedrine 

2

What does the QRS complex on a ECG represent?

Ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization 

3

What does a capnometer measure? What does a capnograph display?

ET CO2

ET CO2 vs Time 

4

An arterial blood sample with have an SO2 > ___% while a venous sample will have SO2=____%. This is a good way to determine whether you have indeed obtained an arterial blood sample 

88

65-75

5

What is the IVF rate for dogs under AX?

10mg/kg/hr

6

What does the p wave of an ECG reflect?

Atrial depolarization 

7

What are the 3 ways to measure BP (note which are direct and which are indirect and where they are placed)?

Direct and invasive via arterial catheter

  • Facial, Transverse Facial artery in Horses
  • Dorsal pedal, Metatarsal artery in Dogs
  • Dorsal pedal, coccygeal in Cats
  • Auricular artery in Cattle
  • Median artery in Sheep/goats
  • Real time BP measurement 

Indirect - Oscillometric (vibrations from blood flow in artery)

  • Gives MAP SAP and DAP
  • Better in large animals 

Indirect- Doppler (ultrasound)

  • Dog on Palmar Digital A
  • Sheep on Median A
  • Horse on Tail
  • Only SAP
  • Cuff 30-40% limb circumference 
  • Underestimates BP in cats

8

What is the drug of choice for a hypotensive cat?

Dopamine 

9

What is the normal temperature range for equids? Ovids?

Equine: 99-101F

Ovine: 102-104F

10

List 3 drugs that can be used to induce dogs quickly? What drug is slower but has a wider safety margin?

Propofol, Alfaxalone, Etomidate

Ketamine 

11

Which induction agent causes transient adrenal suppression?

Etomidate

12

What is the most common cause of A-a difference?

V/Q mismatch

13

What are 2 effects of hypotension?

Compromised ability of kidney to maintain GFR

Compromises cerebral perfusion 

14

What is the main indication for mechanical ventilation? List some other specific indications. What are the 2 biggest side effects caused by mechanical ventilation?

Main: Decreased PaCO2 if intubated, hypoxemia if getting <100%O2

Other: NM blockage, Thoracic sx, Controlling ICP, Chest wall/diaphragm trauma

Side effects: Hypotension, Hypercapnea 

15

What does a F air cannister NOT absorb? When must it be discarded?

N2O

When it has gained 50g

16

What does the T wave on a ECG represent?

Ventricular repolarization

17

What are 2 types of re-breathing systems? What are 2 types of non-rebreathing systems?

Rebreathing: Circle/Y hose, Universal F

Non-rebreathing: Mapleson A-F, Bain (modified Mapleson D)

18

What are normal blood gas values for PaO2 (if getting 100% O2) and Lactate?

PaO2: >500mmHg

Lactate: 1-2 mmol/L 

19

What are advantages and disadvantages of re-breathing systems?

(+): Requires lower fresh gas flow

(-): Higher resistance (valves), slower [AX] change, more components 

20

What pressure do you use to check for leaks in the AX machine/system? How much leakage is acceptable (mL)? 

30cmH2O

Up to 300mL

21

SpO2 75%= ____PaO2

SpO2 88%=  ____PaO2

SpO2 90% = ____PaO2 *Hypoxia upper limit*

SpO2 98% (breathing room air)= ____PaO2

SpO2 100%= ____PaO2

75%= 40mmHg

88%= 55mmHg

90%=  60mmHg

98%= 110mmHg

100%= 550mmHg

22

What do the letters A-E represent?

A: Start of expiration

B: Dead space gas replaced by alveolar gas

C-D: Pure alveolar gas

D: Start of inspiration (ETCO2)

E: Dilution of aleveolar gas by inspired fresh gas

23

How do you calculate bag size for small animals? Large animals?

Small: 15mL/kg x 6 = 90xBW (=ml)

Large: 30L bag or 20L ventilator capacity

24

What do each of these capnograph wave forms represent?

Orange/top: Normal breathing

Yellow/middle: Hyperventilation

Red/bottom: Hypoventilation 

25

Where can temperature measurements be taken?

Rectal

Esophagus

Pharynx

Nasal

26

What can cause decreased SaO2 and pO2?

Acidosis

Hyperthermia

27

In a re-breathing system, what is the O2 flow rate for animals <50kg (induction, maintenance, recovery)? >50kg?

mL/kg/min

<50kg: I and R 50-100

20-50

>50kg: I and R 20-50

10-20

28

What is normal EtCO2?

35-45mmHg

29

What does BP reflect?

Perfusion 

30

What is the normal RR range for equids? Ovids?

Equine: 8-20

Ovine: 12-20