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Flashcards in Upper airways (E1) Deck (85)
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1

What is the purpose of inserting silicon tubes that protrude from the nares when performing nasal surgery?

To maintain the airway/To keep the airways open

2

What condition is nasal planum resection most commonly associated with?

Neoplasia (SCC)

3

Accurate apposition of nasal _____ and ____ reduces the risk of post- nasal planum resection stenosis in dogs,

Mucosa

Skin

4

T/F: The first line treatment for nasal fibrosarcoma is chemo and radiation, if that does not work surgery should be considered.

False, resection is the primary method of treatment since FSA do not respond well to chemo or radiation.

5

What is the best modality to assess oropharyngeal and nasal pathology, such as polyps?

CT

6

__________ sutures work well in cats to decrease the size of the wound, allowing the remaining defect from a nasal planum resection to heal by second intention.

Purse-sting

7

What anatomic structure must you take care to avoid when performing a blind nasal biopsy?

Cribiform plate (no touchies)

8

Which arteries do you risk damaging when performing nasal surgery?

Dorsal, lateral and major palatine arteries

9

What are some primary components of brachycephalic airway syndrome

Elongated soft palate (most common)

Stenotic nares (also common)

Shortened, flattened nasal cavity (nasopharyngeal turbinates)

Hypoplastic trachea

10

What inspiratory noise is associated with an elongated soft palate?

Stertor

11

T/F: Placement of a stent is the primary treatment for hypoplastic trachea.

False, there is no treatment.

12

Which drugs should you avoid when performing an upper airway exam, because they affect laryngeal function? What is usually used?

Ketamine

Diazepam

Large doses of pure mu agonists

Use: Propofol +/- Bup or Torb, Doxapram if they get too deep

13

What surgery is necessary for stage 1 tracheal collapse? Stage 2? Stage 3?

1: Excision of everted laryngeal saccules

2: Above + vocal fold excision and partial arytenoidectomy

3: Permanent tracheostomy

14

At the beginning of an upper airway examination you notice small pear-shaped masses just in front of the vocal folds. What are these?

Everted laryngeal saccules

15

What landmarks are used to determine the level of excision when resecting a soft palate?

The caudal border of the soft palate (should slightly cover the tip of the epiglottis on the midline)

Caudoventral border of the tonsillar crypt

16

Why are wet sponges used around structures that area not meant to be cut by a CO2 laser?

To protect them by absorbing the laser beam

17

T/F: Nasal stenosis is more common in cats than dogs post-op.

False, dogs.

18

T/F: Rhinoscopy and nasophyngoscopy should be performed after imaging.

True

19

Progressively worsening inspiratory dyspnea which is exacerbated by exercise is the most common clinical sign for _____.

BAS

20

When performing nasal surgery, a ______ approach gives you access to the nasal cavity and sinuses, while a _____ approach gives you access to the choanae.

Dorsal

Ventral (also gives access to ventral nasal cavity)

21

Which technique is the easiest but also most traumatic for soft palate resection? Broadly, what type of suture and what suturing pattern would you use?

Clamp/crush technique

Fine absorbable monofilament suture (e.g. 4.0-6.0 Monocryl or Biosyn)

Continuous pattern, from edge to midpoint on each side

(Also, remember you (clamp,) cut, and suture one side and then (clamp,) cut, and suture the other side)

22

T/F: Tracheal collapse and everted laryngeal saccules are secondary or acquired components of brachycephalic airway syndrome.

True

23

If a laser is not available, what technique for resecting a soft palate is recommended?

Free-hand "cut and sew"

24

What complications accompany an overshortening the palate in a palatectomy?

Nasal reflux

Aspiration

25

T/F: An upper airway exam should be performed under deep anesthesia to prevent swallowing.

False

26

What technique for a palatoplasty would you use if you wish to both shorten and thin the palate?

Folded Flap

27

What are acute complications following a palatectomy?

Hemorrhage

Inflammation

28

What do you do if you discover that while performing a palatectomy you undershortened the palate?

Redo the surgery

29

What diagnostics, aside from an upper airway exam, are warranted when working up a case of BAS?

Thoracic radiographs

Blood work (especially if in distress)

+/-: Lateral cervical rads, abdominal rads/US

30

What therapies are commonly administered pre-op to soft palate resections and everted saccule excision?

Dexamethasone/ corticosteroids (ALWAYS)

GI protectants and promotility agents

Anti-emetics

Pre-oxygenation