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Carolus Linnaeus

taxonomic naming system for naming plants & animals; bionomial nomenclature; Genus species (italics & capitalization of Genus)

1

Father of Microbiology

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (dutch)

2

Proposes that living organisms can arise from nonliving matter. Proposed by Aristotle & accepted widely for nearly 2000 years

spontaneous generation aka abiogenesis

3

Challengers of spontaneous generation?

Francesco Redi, Lazarro Spellanzani, Louis Pasteur

4

Supporter(s) of spontaneous generation?

John Needham

5

Name some accomplishments of Louis Pasteur.

He put the idea of spontaneous generation to rest; pasteurization-use of heat to kill contaminating organisms to reduce the spoilage of food & beverages; Germ Theory of Disease; "Modern Father of Microbiology"

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He came up w/the field of etiology, or the causation of disease. He discovered the cause of tuberculosis, beat Pasteur to discover the cause of anthrax, and used Petri dishes.

Robert Koch

7

What are Koch's Postulates?

Steps that must be taken to prove the cause of any infectious disease:
1. suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts
2. agent must be isolated & grown outside the host
3. when agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease
4. same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host

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Semmelweis.

Handwashing

9

Antiseptic technique.

Joseph Lister

10

Cleanliness in nursing practice.

Florence Nightingale

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Infection control/field of epidemiology.

John Snow

12

Field of immunology/smallpox vaccine

Edward Jenner

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"magic bullets" that could kill microorganisms but remain nontoxic to humans (selective toxicity); field of chemotherapy

Paul Ehrlich

14

What are the 4 processes of Life?

1. growth
2. reproduction
3. responsiveness
4. metabolism

15

Give an overview of Prokaryotes. Nucleus? DNA? composed of?

Prokaryotes: lack a nucleus, lack internal membrane-bound organelles, circular DNA, composed of bacteria & archea

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Overview of Eukaryotes. Nucleus? DNA? composed of?

Eukaryotes: have a nucleus, have internal membrane-bound organelles, linear DNA, are larger, composed of algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, plants

17

In bacterial cells, in order to cross the cytoplasmic membrane, what are the passive processes? what are the active processes?

passive: no ATP required-diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis (only H2O)
-active: requires ATP-active transport, group translocation where the substance is chemically altered during transport

18

In osmosis, which way does the concentration gradient flow?

from Low to High

19

Considering isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions, which 2 does having a cell wall NOT matter?

isotonic & hypertonic

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Which solution has the exact same concentration on both sides of the gradient, so there's no net diffusion of H2O?

isotonic solution

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In this type of solution, the water goes OUT of the cell, the cell becomes dehydrated & shrinks (crenates).

hypertonic solution (too much water inside, so it has to go out)

22

In this type of solution, the cell is more concentrated than the solution, so H2O moves INTO the cell & causes cellular swelling

hypotonic (not enough water inside, so it comes in)

23

In which type of solution does a cell wall matter?

a hypotonic solution-cell walls, like in bacteria, will stop the cells from rupturing after too much swelling. NOT the case in humans.

24

In the mechanisms of active transport, what can a uniport be considered? what about an antiport?

a uniport is like a one-way street; an antiport is traffic flowing in 2 directions in the same channel

25

What are the 2 basic types of bacterial cell walls?

Gram + and Gram -

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The Gram + bacterial cell wall has a _ layer of peptidoglycan and appears _ following the gram staining procedure?

thick; purple (purple positive)

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The Gram - bacterial cell wall has a _ layer of peptidoglycan, has a bilayer membrane outside of the peptidoglycan containing lipopolysaccaride A (lipid A), and appears _ following the gram staining procedure?

thin; redish

28

What is the most dormant & enduring cell in the body, and remains dormant until it is needed as a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions?

endospores

29

What is the shortest distance between 2 points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer as separate entities?

resolution