Fiser ABSITE Ch. 26 Cardiac Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fiser ABSITE Ch. 26 Cardiac Deck (37):
1

Right to left cardiac shunts cause _______.

Cyanosis

2

A shift from left-to-right shunt to a right-to-left shunt is a sign of increasing pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension, and is known as __________.

Eisenmenger's syndrome

3

This condition, if left untreated, can cause polycythemia, strokes, brain abscess, endocarditis, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Cyanosis

4

The first sign of CHF in children is ________.

Hepatomegaly

5

Left to right cardiac shunts cause _____, clinically manifested as failure to thrive, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hepatomegaly.

CHF

6

_____________ is a connection between the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery.

Ductus arteriosus

7

________________ is a connection between the portal vein and IVC.

Ductus venosum

8

Ductus venosum causes blood to be shunted away from the _____

Liver

9

Ductus arteriosus causes blood to be shunted away from the ________ in utero.

Lungs

10

The most common congenital heart defect _______

VSD

11

VSDs usually close spontaneously by age ____________

Six months

12

Medical treatment for symptomatic VSD is ______ and _____.

Diuretics, digoxin

13

Indications for repair of VSD

CHF resulting in failure to thrive; peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) > 4-6 Woods units

14

Contraindication to repair of VSD

PVR > 10-12 Woods units

15

Most common type of ASD

Ostium secundum

16

Eighty percent of ostium secundum is caused by ___________

Patent foramen ovale

17

Medical treatment for symptomatic ostium primum defects are ______ and _____.

Diuretics, digoxin

18

Anomalies that assist in oxygenation with ASD

Anomalous pulmonary venous return to right atrium or IVC, or IVC connecting to left atrium

19

This congenital cardiac anomaly is more inferior to the others

Ostium primum

20

Ostium primum is caused by deficiency in left horn of the ___

Sinus venosus

21

Ostium secundum becomes symptomatic when ___, resulting in CHF

Pulmonary to systemic flow (Qp/Qs) > 2

22

Adults with ostium primum defects can get ___ and ___

paradoxical emboli, arrhythmias

23

Symtpoms of osmium primum

fatigue, dyspnea, recurrent infections

24

Tetralogy of Fallot includes which congenital defects?

Overriding aorta, VSD, pulmonary stenosis, and RV hypertrophy

25

Most common congenital defect resulting in cyanosis _________

Tetralogy of Fallot

26

Morphologic abnormality causing Tetralogy of Fallot

Anterior and superior displacement of infundibular septum

27

Medical treatment for Tetralogy of Fallot is _____________

Beta blockade

28

This type of shunt can be used for palliation to delay repair of Tetralogy of Fallot

Blalock Taussig

29

Tetralogy of Fallot should be repaired when this sign occurs ____

Increased cyanosis

30

Definitive repair of Tetralogy of Fallot includes these three steps

Division of RV outflow tract obstruction, patch enlargement of outflow tract, VSD repair

31

The most common cyanotic disorder presenting during the first year of life is _________

Transposition of the great vessels

32

In Transposition of the great vessels, mixing most often occurs through ___________

ASD

33

Medical treatment of Transposition of the great vessels includes ____

Atrial septostomy and PGE1

34

In patients with Transposition of the great vessels and large VSDs, significant CHF and pulmonary HTN may occur by this age ______

three months

35

Optimal timing of repair in Transposition of the great vessels

Early, switch with posterior implantation of coronary arteries

36

Patients with Transposition of the great vessels and _________ are NOT candidates for early switch

LVOT obstruction

37

Patients with Transposition of the great vessels and LVOT obstruction should be treated with _________

Blalock Taussig shunt