Flashcards in Fiser ABSITE Ch. 26 Cardiac Deck (37):
Right to left cardiac shunts cause _______.
A shift from left-to-right shunt to a right-to-left shunt is a sign of increasing pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension, and is known as __________.
This condition, if left untreated, can cause polycythemia, strokes, brain abscess, endocarditis, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
The first sign of CHF in children is ________.
Left to right cardiac shunts cause _____, clinically manifested as failure to thrive, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hepatomegaly.
_____________ is a connection between the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery.
________________ is a connection between the portal vein and IVC.
Ductus venosum causes blood to be shunted away from the _____
Ductus arteriosus causes blood to be shunted away from the ________ in utero.
The most common congenital heart defect _______
VSDs usually close spontaneously by age ____________
Medical treatment for symptomatic VSD is ______ and _____.
Indications for repair of VSD
CHF resulting in failure to thrive; peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) > 4-6 Woods units
Contraindication to repair of VSD
PVR > 10-12 Woods units
Most common type of ASD
Eighty percent of ostium secundum is caused by ___________
Patent foramen ovale
Medical treatment for symptomatic ostium primum defects are ______ and _____.
Anomalies that assist in oxygenation with ASD
Anomalous pulmonary venous return to right atrium or IVC, or IVC connecting to left atrium
This congenital cardiac anomaly is more inferior to the others
Ostium primum is caused by deficiency in left horn of the ___
Ostium secundum becomes symptomatic when ___, resulting in CHF
Pulmonary to systemic flow (Qp/Qs) > 2
Adults with ostium primum defects can get ___ and ___
paradoxical emboli, arrhythmias
Symtpoms of osmium primum
fatigue, dyspnea, recurrent infections
Tetralogy of Fallot includes which congenital defects?
Overriding aorta, VSD, pulmonary stenosis, and RV hypertrophy
Most common congenital defect resulting in cyanosis _________
Tetralogy of Fallot
Morphologic abnormality causing Tetralogy of Fallot
Anterior and superior displacement of infundibular septum
Medical treatment for Tetralogy of Fallot is _____________
This type of shunt can be used for palliation to delay repair of Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot should be repaired when this sign occurs ____
Definitive repair of Tetralogy of Fallot includes these three steps
Division of RV outflow tract obstruction, patch enlargement of outflow tract, VSD repair
The most common cyanotic disorder presenting during the first year of life is _________
Transposition of the great vessels
In Transposition of the great vessels, mixing most often occurs through ___________
Medical treatment of Transposition of the great vessels includes ____
Atrial septostomy and PGE1
In patients with Transposition of the great vessels and large VSDs, significant CHF and pulmonary HTN may occur by this age ______
Optimal timing of repair in Transposition of the great vessels
Early, switch with posterior implantation of coronary arteries
Patients with Transposition of the great vessels and _________ are NOT candidates for early switch