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Flashcards in Foot Deck (75):
1

What is xerosis?

Dry skin

2

What is onychocryptosis?

Ingrown toenail

3

What is hyperkeratosis?

Corns/calluses

4

What are the characteristics of xerosis?

Dry, flaky skin

5

What is the protein that you lose as you age in the skin/

Epidermal filaggrin

6

What glads are lost that decrease sweating?

Eccrine glands

7

Which type of substances are well absorbed: hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophobic

8

What part of the skin has a delayed recovery time?

Stratum corneum

9

What type of dysfunction is seen in DM pts that affects the skin?

Autonomic dysfunction

10

Tinea pedis is more common in what season? Why?

Winter due to low humidity

11

What is the stain to use to determine if fungi are present on a slide?

kOH

12

What are the three major foot problems in the elderly?

Tiea
Eczema
Psoriasis

13

What are the five treatments for xerosis?

Lanolin
Water
Urea
AmLactin (lactic acid)
Oatmeal

14

What drug should you use if there is fissuring/cracking of the skin?

1% hydrocortisone cream

15

What should you do if pts have really bad cracking of the skin?

Occlude with saran warp or socks

16

When should topical agents be applied to the skin?

After shower

17

What are the socks that you can buy to hydrate skin?

Silipos

18

What is the drug that you should use to kill tinea of the foot?

OTC Lamisil

19

What is the general rule to remember for skin?

If its wet, dry it out.
If dry, wet it

20

What is the enzyme that fungi produces that causes brittle toenails? What does it do?

Keratinase--destroys keratin

21

What are the causes of yellow nails? (TOECLYPT)

Trauma
Onychomycosis
Eczema
Circulatory problems
Lichen planus
Yellow nail syndrome
Psoriasis
Tumor

22

How do you diagnose onychomycosis?

Lab

23

What is the usual cause of onychocryptosis?

Heredity ad improper nail trimming

24

When should nails be cut straight across?

Straight across only if the nails are normal

25

If there is a chronic problem with ingrown toenails, what should you do?

Remove some of the distal corner

26

Is the central V cut helpful?

No

27

True or false; some pts do better with in-grown nails if left longer than normal

True

28

What is the infection most common cause of paronychia? How you diagnose this?

Staph Aureus--just assume its this.

29

What is the treatment for paronychia? (3)

10 min warm water
Betadine solution
Cephalexin

30

What is the surgical treatment for paronychia?

Lance it
Bid soaks
Cephalexi

31

What is hyperkeratosis?

Thickened skin that is the result of intermittent pressure over the bones

32

When is hyperkeratosis bad?

If painful---means there is an ulcer beneath the callus

33

What happens if there is intermittent pressure over skin?

callus

34

What happens if there is constant pressure over skin?

Ulceration

35

What is the major complication of corns on the distal toes?

Osteomyelitis

36

What is the only layer o the skin that can be built up?

Stratum corneum

37

What causes the pain associated with hyperkeratosis?

Pressing against the sensory receptors in the underlying dermis

38

What is the treatment hyperkeratosis?

Debridement
Padding
Shoe modifcation

39

What is the shoe that can be used for hyperkeratosis?

Queen mary shoes

40

What are the two common digital bone deformities seen in the elderly?

Hallux valgus
Hammertoe

41

What is a bunion? What causes this?

normal first metatarsal that has moved medially due to a tendon imbalance

42

What is the treatment for bunion?

Extra depth shoes
Bunion shield
Toe separator
Surgery

43

What is a hammertoe?

PIP dorsiflexes
DIP plantar flexes

44

What causes a hammertoe?

Tendon imbalance

45

What is the treatment for hammertoes?

Debridement
Paddings
Splints
Shoes

46

What causes pes planus?

Progressive ligamentous laxity

47

What is the other name for flat foot/pes planus?

Pronation

48

What are the complications of pes planus?

Leg/back pain
MPJ pain
DJD
Tendonitis

49

Inflammation of the plantar fascia of the foot is called what?

Plantar fasciitis

50

Pain in the bottom of the heel + pain getting out of bed = ? Treatment?

Plantar fasciitis
Get ***

51

Do the bone spurs that occur with plantar fasciitis cause the pain?

No

52

What is the treatment for pes planus?

Arch support

53

What is the joint that you need to get pressure under to fix pes planus?

Talonavicular joint

54

What is the complication of vascular deterioration in aging?

Atherosclerosis, causing chronic venous insufficiency

55

What part of the body will show signs of vascular disease?

Foot for arteriole
Ankle for venous

56

What is the effect of DM on vessels?

Accelerates the aging of the arteries

57

What is the waist sizes for men and women with DM? What is the predictive value for this?

>40 inches for men
>35 inches for women

80% predictive value

58

What is the solution for a bad calcaneal ulcer?

BKAs

59

What is the treatment for atherosclerosis of the feet for DMs?

Deep shoes
Tight regulation of blood sugars

60

What is the level of HbA1C level that DMs should be below?

61

True or false: Medicare will pay for therapeutic DM shoes if you write a letter

True

62

What causes chronic venous insufficiency? Effects?

Damage to vein valves, causing congestion of blood and hypoxia

63

Venous ulcers will appear with what color?

Red

64

Arterial ulcers will appear with what color?

White, black, gray

65

venous insufficiency will eventually cause what?

Ulcerations

66

Chronic venous insufficiency can lead to what complication in the leg?

DVTs and PEs

67

What is the treatment for venous disease?

Compression hose

68

Numbness, tingling, burning in the foot can suggest what neurological diseases? (4)

DM
B12 deficiencies
Thyroid disease
EtOH-ism

69

What is the range of the compression hoes that most pts can tolerate?

20-30 mmHg

70

what percent of peripheral neuropathy pts do not have an identifiable etiology?

40%

71

What percent of DM neuropathy is caused by something OTHER than hyperglycemia?

10%

72

Inability to perceive pain or pressure in the foot will cause what?

ulceration

73

What number of areas out of the 10 tested by the monofilament suggests anesthetics peripheral neuropathy?

74

What is the treatment for DM peripheral neuropathy?

Control blood sugars
Lyrica

75

True or false: there is NO cure for a loss of sensation in distal extremities of DM

True