Forelimb and Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Forelimb and Vertebral Column Deck (243)
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1

What is a locomotor system?

Musculoskeletal system that allows wide range of animal movement

2

What are the adaptions to the locomotor system of cursors?

Reduced pectoral skeleton- more cranial movement
Elongation at proximal end of limb
Elongation at distal end of limb

3

What are the 4 types of bones?

Long, Short, Flat and Sesamoid

4

How can skeletal muscle be attached?

Via tendons, via aponeurosis, cervico-thoraco-lumbar fascia, superficial fascia

5

What is the difference between and intrinsic and extrinsic muscle?

Intricnisic- origin and insertion with appendicular skeleton
Extrinsic- origin on axial skeleton

6

What is the term used for a folding limb?

flexion

7

What is the term used for a stretching limb?

extension

8

What is in the axial skeleton?

Bones of vertebral column, skull and ribcage

9

What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?

Fore and hindlimb bones

10

What is a diaphysis of a bone?

shaft of a bone

11

What is the epiphysis of a bone?

The end

12

Where is the weakest point of adult bones?

Shaft

13

What is the bottom of a dogs forelimb and hindlimb called?

Forelimb- palmar
Hindlimb- plantar

14

How are muscles attached to bones?

Tendons-
Aponeurosis
Fascia

15

Describe the action of a muscle?

Belly contracts and shortens
Points of attachments move closer
Pivot at joint

16

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the fore limb?

Intrinsic- origin and insertion within appendicular skeleton
Extrinsic- origin on abaxial skeleton

17

What bones make up the forelimb?

Scapula
Humerus
Ulna
Radius
Carpal
Metacarpals
Phalanges

18

What are the different regions of a dogs forelimb?

Omo- shoulder
Brachium- arm
Antebrachium- forearm
Carpus- wrist
Manus- hand
Digit- toe

19

What type of bone is the scapula?

Flat bone

20

Describe all the features of the scapula?

Caudal and cranial angle
Caudal and cranial border
Central spine
Supraspinous fossa- cranial
Infraspinous fossa- caudal
Scapular notch- cranial ventral
Acromion process- bottom of spine
Supraglenoid tubercule- cranial ventral
Glenoid cavity- notch at distal end
Serrated face- back of bone
Subscapular fossa- back
Infraglenoid tubercle- caudal ventral

21

What is the difference between cat and dogs scapulas?

More rounded cranial angle in cats
Cats have Suprahamate process- like extension of acromion process
Cats have clavicle

22

What are the centres of ossification in a scapula?

Body
Supraglenoid tubercle

23

What are the extrinsic muscles of the forelimb?

Brachiocephalic muscle
Omotransversarius
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus ventralis
Trapezius
Rhomboideus
Pectoral

24

What is the function of the brachiocephalic muscle?

Protractor

25

What is the origin and insertion of the brachiocephalic muscle?

Origin- cervico-thoracic fascia
Insertion- humerus

26

What is the insertion of the omotransversarius?

Origin- transverse wing of the atlas
Insertion- acromion process

27

What is the function of the omotransvarius?

Protracts the limb

28

What is the function of the lattisimus dorsi?

Retractor/ propulsion

29

What is the origin and insertion of the lattimus dorsi?

Origin- thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion- humerus

30

What is the origin and insertion of the serratus ventralis muscle?

Origin- thoracic wall/cervical vertabrae
Insertion- proximal scapula