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Year 1 NSF > GI System > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI System Deck (145)
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1

What is prehension?

Movement of food into the oral cavity using tongue, lips and teeth

2

What is mechanical breakdown?

Mastication to reduce the size of food

3

What is muccin?

Mixture of mucous and water

4

What is salivation for?

Mucous for lubrication, some contain enzymes for digestion

5

Where is saliva produced?

parotid/ serous gland

6

What is the composition of saliva?

Mucin, amylase (omnivores), bicarbonate, phosphate (ruminants), lysosome, antibodies, protein binding tannins, urea (ruminants)

7

What effects the composition of salivary in non-ruminants?

Secretion comp effected by blood flow- primary secretion isotonic with blood, at low flow secretion hypotonic, at high rates remains isotonic

8

How is a ruminants composition of saliva affected?

Secretion is always isotonic to blood, at low flow PO4 predominates, at high HCO3 predominates

9

How is secretion of saliva regulated?

Regulated by neural control, sympathetic reduced, parasympathetic increased, can be congenital (taste), conditioned (pavlov)

10

What are the different types of motility in the abdomen?

Segmental- breakdown/mix, peristaltic- aboral direction
anti-peristaltic- oral direction

11

What is used for chemical breakdown in digestion?

ions, mucous, enzymes

12

What happens to chemicals after chemical breakdown?

reabsorbed

13

What are the 4 muscles of the abdominal wall?

Rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique and transverse abdominal

14

What is the insertion and origin of the rectus abdominis?

O- ventral surface of ribs
I- cranial pubis

15

How are the left and right side of the rectus abdomens separated?

Line alba

16

What is the outermost abdominal wall muscle?

External abdominal oblique

17

What are the origins and insertions of the external abdominal obliques?

O- lateral caudal surface of ribs 4+/lumbodorsal fascia
I- linea alba/ pre-pubic tendon

18

What direction do external abdominal oblique muscle fibres run?

caudo-ventral

19

What is the order from outside to inside of transverse abdominal muscles?

External abdominal oblique, Internal abdominal oblique, Transverse abdominal

20

What is the origin and insertion of the internal abdominal oblique?

O- coxal tuber/lumbodorsal fascia
I- linea alba, last rib and cartilages of caudal ribs

21

What direction do fibres of the internal abdominal oblique run?

Cranio-ventrally

22

What is the origin and Insertion of the transverse abdominal?

O- medial ventral ribs/ deep lumbosacral fascia
I- linea alba

23

How do fibres of the transverse abdominal run?

Transversely

24

How is the linea alba formed?

Tendons of lateral abdominal wall muscles pass above and below the rectus abdominis to join milling forming aponeurosis and the linea alba

25

What section of the spinal cord innervates the abdominal wall muscles?

T13 and L1-L5

26

How does the dorsal and ventral routes innervate the abdominal wall?

Dorsal roots- dorsal muscle
Ventral roots- 3 branches
1) medial between TA and IAO to RA
2) lateral between IAO/EAO to midway
3) lateral cutaneous perforates EAO to skin

27

What in the embryo does the epithelial lining and exocrine glands develop from?

Endoderm

28

What does muscle and connective tissue develop from in the embryo?

Splanchnic mesoderm

29

What does the foregut in the embryo develop into?

pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and initial duodenum

30

What does the mid gut from the embryo develop into?

Rest of the duodenum, jejunum, ilium, caecum and ascending and transverse colon