Fractures and dislocations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fractures and dislocations Deck (66):
1

What is used as the midline in the hand when describing movements?

middle finger

2

How is angulation described in regards to bone fractures?

Direction of the apex (tip of triangle formed pointing toward or away from midline)

Medial angulation can be termed 'varus', and lateral angulation can be termed 'valgus'.

3

How is displacement described in regards to bone fractures?

Relative to midline (toward or away)

4

What is the "correct" terminology for naming fingers in regard to orthopedic language?

Name the common name of the digit--not the number (?)

5

How do you correctly state direction in the forearm?

Whether it's radial or ulnar displaced

6

What is the key history bit that is needed when seeing an arm/hand injury?

Dominant hand?

7

What are the four key things that should be checked if there is an extremity injury?

Circulation
Motion
Sensation

Look at joints above and below

8

What is the epiphysis?

End of a long bone

9

What is the diaphysis?

Shaft of a long bone

10

How are trabeculations arranged in long bones?

Along the lines of stress

11

Which is stronger: a solid or tubular bone?

Tubular

12

Where does the blood supply come through the bone?

Through the periosteum

13

What is the technical term for the growth plate?

Physis or epiphyseal plate

14

What is a type 1 fracture in children?

Runs along the metaphyseal plate

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/salter-harris-fractures

15

What is a type 2 fracture in children?

Runs along the metaphyseal plate, but then exits before it is completely transected, and heads away from the epiphysis

16

What is a type 3 fracture in children?

Fracture that begins in the metaphyseal plate, but then immediately exits toward the epiphysis

17

What is a type 4 fracture in children?

Fracture that transects the metaphysis

18

What is a type 5 fracture in children?

Crushing injury to the metaphysis, stopping bone growth

19

What is the blood supply to bones? venous drainage?

Periosteal arteries and epiphyseal veins

20

True or false: the periosteum is richly innervated

True

21

How are calluses oriented to the bone fracture?

Follows periosteum

22

What is the role of the synovial fluid in joint space fractures?

may prevent healing

23

True or false: cartilaginous lining heals poorly

True

24

What is a major issue with join space fractures?

Causes misalignment, that may produce issues with weight bearing

25

What are the two most commonly dislocated joints?

Shoulder and fingers

26

What three joints that are devastating if dislocated?

Knee
Elbow
Hip

27

What is the function of the scapula, per Benzoni?

Protect the thorax

28

What is the treatment for a fractured scapula?

Sling--muscles stabilize the area well

29

Which is more common: anterior or posterior dislocation of the shoulder?

Anterior

30

How do shoulder dislocation usually occur?

Force applied to an upraised arm

31

What is the nerve that may be injured with a shoulder dislocation?

Axillary

32

Where is the axillary nerve commonly injured?

Surgical neck of the humerus or anterior dislocation

33

What is the presentation of an axillary nerve injury? (muscle findings, sensation deficits)

-Flattened deltoid
-Loss of arm abduction
-Loss of sensation over deltoid and lateral arm

34

What are the spinal levels of the axillary nerve?

C5-C6

35

What are the spinal levels of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5-C7

36

What are the findings of a musculocutaneous nerve injury?

-Loss of forearm flexion and supination
-Loss of of sensation over the lateral forearm

37

Draw the brachial plexus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTas7ijp0YE&index=2&list=WL

38

How is the arm held with a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Forced internal rotation

39

When should posterior shoulder dislocations always be checked for?

Post sz

40

What is a major consequence of an inferior shoulder dislocation?

Brachial plexus injury

41

How is an arm held with a posterior shoulder dislocation?

Luxatio erecta--arm held away from their side

42

How, generally, do inferior shoulder dislocations occur?

Force applied downward

43

What is the most common mechanism of shoulder fractures?

Falling on an outstretched arm

44

What is the most common type of shoulder fracture?

Surgical neck fracture

45

What is the treatment for shoulder fractures?

Sling with early mobilization

46

When are shoulder replacements not needed?

If articular surface is intact

47

What is the mechanism that causes a spiral fracture?

Twisting of the arm (or leg)

48

Where does the radial nerve run in the proximal arm?

Encircles the humerus from internal to external (counterclockwise)

49

Wrist drop indicates what nerve is damaged?

radial

50

What area of the distal humerus is usually injured when FOOSH happens?

humeral condyles

51

What nerves run in the antecubital region from lateral to medial?

Radial
Median

52

What nerve runs just posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus?

Ulnar

53

What is the treatment for a distal humeral fracture?

Stabilize with padded posterior splint, and sling

surgery

54

What is the usual mechanism for elbow dislocation?

FOOSH!

55

Why do the radius and ulna usually disarticulate together?

Interosseous membrane holds them together

56

What is the treatment for an elbow dislocation?

-Reduce immediately
-Tight elbow flexion and sling

57

What is the correct order for reducing a dislocated elbow: axially then posterior, or posteriorly then axially?

posteriorly, and then axillary

58

What is characteristic about the physical exam with elbow fractures?

Severe pain with RROM

59

What is the treatment for an elbow fracture?

Padded posterior splint and sling, with a referral to surgeon

60

What is the "sail sign" associated with elbow fractures?

Fat pad that appears on the posterior aspect of the elbow with fractures

61

What is a Nursemaid's elbow?

Pulling the proximal radius through the annular ligament

62

What is the typical presentation of a nursemaid's elbow?

Kid refusing to move the arm, with forearm internally rotated, and a 120 degree angulation of the elbow

63

What is the treatment for a nursemaid's elbow?

Reduce immediately

64

What is a pilon fracture?

a type of break that occurs at the bottom of the tibia and involves the weight-bearing surface of the ankle joint. With this type of injury, the other bone in the lower leg, the fibula, is frequently broken as well. A pilon fracture typically occurs as the result of a high-energy event, such as a car collision or fall from height.

65

What type of load produces a pilon fracture?

Axial load

66

What type of load produces a transverse fx?

transverse load